According to Lester Bangs"the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties". As a result of cross-pollination between surf rock, hot rod music, and other influences, an energetic and upbeat style sometimes referred to as frat rock emerged, which has been mentioned as an early subgenre of garage rock.
Though often associated with Pacific Northwest acts such as the Kingsmen, frat rock also thrived elsewhere. During the mids garage rock entered its most active period, prompted by the influence of the Beatles and the British Invasion.
In the wake of the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful British beat groups and acts achieved success in America between andoften referred to in the US as "the British Invasion". Such acts had a profound impact, leading many often surf or hot rod groups to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands. Numerous acts sometimes characterized as garage rock formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs.
In the wake of the British Invasion garage rock experienced a boom in popularity. With thousands of garage bands active in the US and Canada, hundreds produced regional hits during the period,  often receiving airplay on local AM radio stations. It is generally agreed that the garage rock boom peaked around Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. One of the first of such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreadswho appeared at New York's Peppermint Lounge in and accompanied the Rolling Stones on their American tour the following year.
The Liverbirds were a beat group from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club. In and the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the musical landscape, presenting not only a challenge, but also a new impetus, as previously established acts in the Pacific Northwest adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial and artistic success, while scores of new bands formed.
The Sonics from Tacoma had a raunchy, hard-driving sound that influenced later acts such as Nirvana and the White Stripes. The Barbarians from Cape Codwearing sandals and long hair and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as " Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl ". Show on same bill as the Rolling Stones, James Brown. The garage craze came into full swing in California, particularly in Los Angeles.
Lovea racially integrated band headed by African-American musician Arthur Leewas one of the most popular bands in the scene. Chicago, known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry in the s and LP) also a hotbed of activity for garage rock.
Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones, the Pretty Thingsand the Yardbirds influenced the Shadows of Knight who recorded for Dunwich Records and were known for a tough, hard-driving sound. Michigan had one of the largest scenes in the country.
LP) Texas, The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are considered one of the prominent bands of the era.
From Florida, Orlando's We the People came about as the result of the merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor.
Like the United States, Canada experienced a large and vigorous garage rock movement. Vancouver's the Northwest Companywho recorded "Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. The Paupers released several singles and two albums.
Outside of the mainland, garage rock became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent. The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. Although Britain did not develop a distinct garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, many British beat groups shared important characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and the music of certain UK acts has been mentioned in particular relation to garage.
Beat music emerged in Britain in the early s, as musicians who originally came together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences. The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups. Coinciding with the "British Invasion" of the US, a musical cross-fertilization developed between the two continents. In their transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night", the Kinks took the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and applied greater volume and distortion, which in turn, influenced the approach of many American garage bands.
Bybands such as the Who and the Small Faces tailored their appeal to the mod subculture centered in London. Some commentators have branded the Troggs as garage rock. The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of national movements sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock. Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as beat music overtook the continent.
Bands from Britain and around Europe traveled there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German television shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Latin America got swept up in the worldwide beat trend and developed several of its own national scenes. Mexico experienced its own equivalent to North American garage. The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mids in a period sometimes referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion.
Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers  and Los Mockers. The far East was not immune to the beat craze, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' visit, when they played five shows at Tokyo's Budokan arena. Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the s, persisting into the early s with the s musical style still intact even after it fallen out of favor elsewhere.
The Jets, who were active from towere perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Sydney was the host to numerous acts. Marks described as "speaker cone-shredding". From New Zealand, the Bluestars cut the defiant "Social End Product", aimed at social oppression much like the music of s punk rock acts. Increasingly throughoutpartly due to the growing influence of drugs such as marijuana and LSD numerous bands began to expand their sound, sometimes employing eastern scales and various sonic effects to achieve exotic and hypnotic soundscapes in their music.
By the mids numerous garage bands began to employ tone-altering devices such as fuzzboxes on guitars often for the purpose of enhancing the music's sonic palate, adding an aggressive edge with loudly amplified instruments to create a barrage of "clanging" sounds, in many cases expressing anger, defiance, and sexual frustration. Inthe influence of artists such as Bob Dylanwho moved beyond political protest by experimenting with abstract and surreal lyrical imagery  and switched to electric guitarbecame increasingly pervasive across the musical landscape, affecting a number of genres, including garage rock.
Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist, musicians sonically pushed barriers and explored new horizons. Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Creamnonetheless managed to infuse esoteric elements into basic primitive rock. In Augustthe Deep traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album Psychedelic Moods : A Mind-Expanding Phenomenareleased in Octoberone month before the LP) Floor Elevators' debut album, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness LP).
Garage rock helped lay the groundwork for acid rock. Certain acts conveyed a world view markedly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political or philosophical messages,  dabbling in experimental musical forms and concepts considered at the time to be decidedly out of the mainstream. The Fugswho formed inwere one of rock's first experimental bands and its core members were singer, poet, and social activist Ed Sandersalong with Tuli Kupferberg and Ken Weaver.
The Velvet Undergroundwhose roster included Lou Reedare now generally considered the foremost experimental rock group of the period. Outside of New York were the Monks from Germany, whose members were former US servicemen who chose to remain in Germany, where in they developed an experimental sound on their album Black Monk Time.
Even at the height of garage rock's popularity in the mids, the success of most of its records, in spite of a handful of notable exceptions, was relegated to local and regional markets. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and other lates big-production spectaculars, rock albums became increasingly elaborate and were expected to display maturity and complexity, while the RPM single ceded to the long-play album as the preferred medium.
Album-oriented FM radio stations [i] eventually overtook AM radio in popularity, and as the large major-label record companies became more powerful and less willing to sign new acts, the once plentiful local and regional independent labels of the mids began to fold. Though the garage rock boom faded at the end of the s, a handful of maverick acts carried its impetus into the next decade, seizing on the style's rougher edges, while brandishing them with increased volume and aggression.
In the late s and early s, several Michigan bands rooted in garage rock    recorded works that became highly influential, particularly with the s punk movement.
Two bands that formed during the waning days of the Detroit scene in the early s were the Punks and Death. The Punks had a sometimes thrashing sound that caught the attention of rock journalist Lester Bangs, and their song "My Time's Comin ' " was retroactively featured in a episode of HBO's Vinyl.
For the Whole World to Seewhich, along with the release of their other previously unissued tracks, finally earned them a reputation as pioneers in punk rock. Between andother movements further removed from the American garage rock tradition emerged, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of proto-punk, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as Krautrock in Germany.
Identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early s and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe itas well as the Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the punk movement that emerged in the mid-to-late s. The mid- to lates saw the arrival of the acts now most commonly identified as punk rock. Frequently mentioned as the first of these  were the Ramones from New York, some of whose members earlier played in s garage bands. Despite the influence of garage rock and proto-punk on the originating musicians of these scenes,  punk rock emerged as a new phenomenon, distinct from its prior associations,  and the garage band era of the s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.
Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. Out of the garage revival, a more aggressive form of garage rock known as garage punk emerged in the late s.
It differed from the "retro" revival in that its acts did not attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of s groups, and their approach tended to be louder, often infusing garage rock with elements of Stooges-era protopunk, s punk rockand other influences, creating a new hybrid.
In the early s, a garage rock or post-punk revival  achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. The mids saw several underground bands achieve mainstream prominence. Acts such as Ty SegallThee Oh SeesBlack Lips  and Jay Reatard,  that initially released records on smaller garage punk labels such as In the Red Recordsbegan signing to larger, better-known independent labels.
According to Peter Aaron, there are over a thousand garage rock compilations featuring work by various artists of the s. The Pebbles series was begun by Greg Shaw and originally appeared on his Bomp label in and has been issued in successive installments on LP and CD. Girls in the Garage was the first female garage rock series,  and Ace Records' issued the more recent Girls with Guitars compilations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Garage band. Subgenre of rock and roll music. For other uses, see Garage band disambiguation. For the hybrid style from the s combining s garage rock and s punk rock, see Garage punk fusion genre. For more information regarding punk rock's s roots, see Proto-punk and Origins of punk rock. Rock and roll blues rockabilly rhythm and blues soul surf instrumental rock beat.
Proto-punk punk rock acid rock bubblegum pop hard rock power pop psychobilly heartland rock grunge punk blues  post-punk revival paisley underground Southern Rock. Blues rock folk rock jangle pop new wave psychedelic rock. See also: Rock and rollRhythm and bluesSurf rockand Instrumental rock.
Chris Montez — "Let's Dance" The hit " Let's Dance " by Chris Montezwith its use of "cheesy"-sounding Farfisa organ riffs and banging drums,  featured stylistic elements that anticipate the garage sound. For other uses, see Frat rock disambiguation. The Kingsmen — "Louie, Louie" Further information: Cultural impact of the Beatles and British Invasion.
Question Mark and the Mysterians — "96 Tears" Musicologist Pete Dale notes "96 Tears" as a typical example of s punk, containing a "basic beat, repetitive structure, and a hypnotically simple keyboard part". See also: Sunset StripSurf rockand Chicano rock. See also: British Invasion and Freakbeat.
See also: Nederbeat and Beat-Club. See also: Uruguayan Invasion. See also: Group Sounds. See also: Australian rock. See also: Counterculture of the s and Psychedelia. Count Five — "Psychotic Reaction" Main article: Psychedelic rock. See also: acid rock. See also: Experimental rock. See also: Proto-punk. Main articles: Punk rock and Punk subculture. See also: List of garage rock compilation albums. Main article: List of garage rock bands. Release dates for records generally range from to with several later exceptionsbut the vast bulk of the discography is composed of records released between and However, it is difficult to determine whether it was used in quite the same generic sense it is now.
Lastly you might take into account the players and audiences themselves, nurtured on a steady diet of rock for as long as they could remember, the former sure that a piece of plutonian pie could easily be theirs by as simple act of faith as picking up a guitar Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved June 7, Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved November 11, Pop Chronicles.
University of North Texas Libraries. Track 1. Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved August 23, Archived from the original on June 3, Retrieved April 3, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on September 15, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on December 15, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved June 8, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved June 9, Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved July 31, Ultimate Classic Rock.
Archived from the original on September 8, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved June 17, Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved June 12, Archived from the original on June 15, Retrieved May 25, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved May 17, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on April 13, Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved July 13, Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved July 6, Archived from the original on March 12, Archived from the original on November 22, Retrieved July 7, Los Angeles Nuggets — Review ".
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In xilografiaun'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina.
Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cinadurante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente.
I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli. Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsail leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo.
Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia.
Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio. Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio.
Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.
Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.
Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra.
Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore. Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Oltre al taglio "superiore" o di "testa" vi sono il taglio esterno, detto "davanti" o "concavo"e il taglio inferiore, detto "piede". I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo.
In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo.
Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro. Sovente riporta un motto. Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva. Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio.
Nel libro antico i "nervi" sono i supporti di cucitura dei fascicoli. I nervi possono essere lasciati a vista e messi in evidenza attraverso la "staffilatura"oppure nascosti in modo da ottenere un dorso liscio.
Nel libro moderno i nervi sono di norma finti, apposti per imitare l'estetica del libro antico e conferire importanza al libro. Is one of the very rare cardiologists in South Africa who is clinically active and trained in fundamental molecular laboratory methods, combining laboratory and epidemiological skills. Widely published in both local and international journals and books of various topics related to cardiovascular medicine.
Internationally recognized for her outstanding work in the area of heart failure. Collaborations with a range of prestigious national and international clinical and academic centers. She holds an appointment as adjunct professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and as a visiting professor at the Baker Institute in Melbourne, Australia. The Brain and Behaviour Initiative BBI enables cross-faculty, multidisciplinary, collaborative research in the cognitive and affective neurosciences and brings together expertise on phenotyping, genotyping, cognotyping, brain imaging and molecular signatures to address brain-behaviour issues.
New experimental techniques including brain imaging, genetic testing and neuropsychological assessment combined with new theoretical insights have opened up significant potential for the advancement of novel diagnostic tools and treatments for people with mental disorders.
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