Many Koreans who immigrate to the United States and learn English have a distinct Korean-English variation, especially in early stages of acquisition. One reason this is so is due to distinct laterals between English and Korean languages, which affects the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of the languages.
American English is often described as having "dark" variants, which involves a primary Alveolar contact gesture as well as a secondary dorsal retraction gesture. The two gestures that make up the Korean lateral include tongue tip closure and Palatalization phoneticswhich involves the raising of the tongue body.
According to the Speech Learning Model, learning a second language is easier in later stages of acquisition for laterals that are more different than similar because one can recognize the differences in speech sounds more clearly.
This is true for Koreans learning English, as they use distinct articulatory tongue shapes, using a low tongue body and a heavily retracted tongue dorsum for their English word-final lateral, similar to native English speakers. In loanwords used in Konglish, the dark English lateral is often mapped onto the loanwords Koreans use, showing that Koreans see these loanwords as separate from purely Korean, even though it is used in everyday life.
These two lists of Konglish terms, the second being loan words that arrived via Japanese influence, are intended to contain Konglish terms not readily understandable to a native English speaker, similar to wasei-eigo terms in the Japanese language. Many Konglish terms were invented by Koreans through non-standard abbreviations or combinations of English words or by applying a new meaning or usage to a common English word.
Many loanwords entered into Korean from Japanespecially during the Japanese forced occupationwhen the teaching and speaking of Korean was prohibited. A simple example would be how the meaning of the English word "cunning" changes when used in a Konglish sentence.
Compared to Japanese, both English and Korean have more vowels and permit more coda consonants. Oftentimes when Japanesized English words enter into the Korean language, the "original" English words from which the Japanglish words were derived are reverse-traced, and the words undergo de-Japanesization sometimes with hypercorrection.
Many Konglish words can be considered pseudo-anglicisms as they follow certain traits: use native words in conjunction with an English suffix like -ting or -ism to create a word that does not exist in the English language. While English words may have reached Korea via globalization, modernization, etc. A trend in the naming of apartment buildings in Seoul is blending English words together because developers believe this will enhance the luxury brand image of the properties.
Creative use of the English language by Koreans learning English as a foreign language has also been referred to as Konglish. North Korean defectors can have trouble integrating into South Korean society because much of the Konglish used there is not used in North Korea. This can lead to confusion, misunderstandings and delay in integration into the society. This is not the sole cause of the linguistic divide between the two nations as some Korean words are also used differently between the two countries.
He felt that it was both inventive and clever. Sebastian Harrisan has suggested that calling these kinds of things Konglish masks the problem with English education in Korea. They feel that the heavy focus on English will damage the Korean language and doesn't benefit international competitiveness. The spread of Konglish in the Korean language has been cited as a reason to increase Koreans' exposure to native English speakers, especially during their educational time.
Koreans instructing others can lead to cementing errors into the language. The A. Retrieved 5 September The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 19 April Drowned in Sound.
Archived from the original on 9 February Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 2 October December Archived from the original on 2 December The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 June The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 September Resident Advisor.
Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 19 March Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 23 April Prahran, Vic : Hardie Grant Books. Retrieved 18 September Australasian Performing Right Association. XL Recordings. Broadcast Music, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 March Authors and Publishers. Archived from the original on 24 September Apple Music.
Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 31 May UK Albums Chart. Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 20 June GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 18 June Official Charts Company. Retrieved 19 June Pink Floyds Dark Side of the Moon. The Eagles Greatest Hits. Depending on your age, maybe you even owned these rock albums on vinyl, CD or cassette tape. If your taste in music leans more toward the classical side of things, those albums may include an opera or a concerto or two.
Alaska custom firearms in anchorage was great. Drive Safe and enjoy the scenic ride back! Let us know how the roads are in this early driving season ofthanks!
Bucket List — Drive to Alaska. Planning on doing it, so this article is really helpful. Thank you for posting. Have flown to Fairbanks, toured by bus and train to Whittier, then cruised the inside passage. The land portion was a bust due to the 94 degree temps. The cruise portion was really delightful. Will check into the suggested books. Thanks again. Great to hear! We saw 86 degrees Fahrenheit on some bank thermometers.
Definitely not a temperate, coastal climate once you get inland. The summers are hot. Something for first-time visitors to be aware of and pack for. I leave in about 2. Hi Amy, if you are driving up to Alaska you will need a passport.
A valid U. I called the CBSA a few times just to see if the answers were consistent and they all were. DL, veh. I also called the US border a couple times and they said, the technical answer is Yes you need a passport, but if you have a birth cert, DL etc. Thank you for your great blog. I am thankful we got our Namibia camping trip in before sleep apnea! I was taking notes from your blog but was not sure about the Columbia Icefield in Canada.
Do you have to take a Tour to it to walk on it or can we drive the RV to it and walk on the glacier? Hi Lynn sounds like your gearing up for a great trip!
For the Columbia Icefield, you can park at the visitors center and then walk up to see the glacier. It is a little bit of a hike from the road but not too hard. From here you can get a nice view of the ice. Have fun planning and a great trip! Great blog. We are getting ready to drive from the Olympic Peninsula to Alaska via the Alcan. I know it was probably all wow. We will be traveling with dogs, did you see lots of regulations for pets?
Would you suggest a side trip to the coast? My 75 year old parents are planning a 60 day trip to Alaska from BC. All of the adult children are a little concerned that they are taking too much on.
Any words of wisdom? They are planning to take their trailer rather than stay at hotels. Congrats on them for still having the travel bug. Running out of gas was our biggest fear. As long as they are good drivers they should be fine. Do they Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl) on staying at formal campgrounds or pulling over in the rest stops?
We did the rest stops and we had no issues at all, just lock up at night. If they were our parents I would just ask them to check in with us every day. The most dangerous thing driving is the frost heaves in the road when they see them they need to go slow.
They will last for hours right before and after the border. Where and how long they will last changes year to year. This is what could be the only dangerous thing about driving. You can bring weapons into Canada. Hand guns are prohibited but you can bring shot guns and rifles through you just need to declare them with the border agent, fill out a form and pay a 25 dollar fee. Trying to determine the best place to enter British Columbia on my way to Dawson and the start of the Alcan.
Leaving the U. This time of year. Any information would be much appreciated. As far as road conditions we have not driven this route during this time of the year, HWY 40 can be a pretty desolate stretch. Thanks for your info. My husband and I are headed back up in June for our 4th trip 3rd driving; 1 cruise. We drive about half the way and take the Marine Alaskan Highway Ferry the rest.
We stay at each port for a couple of days to enjoy what each town has to offer. Hoping the weather is clear to see Denali this year. Plan to spend time Fairbanks as will. Our main stay is in Petersburg and will fish for a couple of weeks. The Milepost is very helpful for us. Roads are well paved and each town has gas and food if needed.
The longest we went between gas stations was 87 miles. We are all booked and looking forward to seeing the Last Frontier again. I am wondering about the availability of motels need reservations etc. We are sr. We would be driving a mini van.
We would probably spend a month or so. Hi Dick, it really depends on the season. If you are going in June, July or August you need to think about booking rooms now.
Outside those times you might be able to walk in and get a room. However, the short summer season is best for driving and should be mostly free of snow. Thoroughly enjoyed your article. Thanks for all the useful information. However, I would like to know about places to stay along the Alcan as I am a bit too old by choice to do the camping thing. Are there motels or other quality as long as the basics are met is not really an issue places to put up for the night and get a hot meal along the Alcan?
Is this info in the Milepost which I will buy? Thanks, in advance. Finding a room the night you want to stay is not easy. What part of the drive are you most interested in? Your best bet is to pick up one of the above suggest books like the Milestone. They have every campground and their facilities listed in there.
Safe drive to Alaska. What month did you do your trip? Thank you in advance!! We drove to Alaska mid-June and back mid-July. Good luck planning the trip and be safe on the roads driving to Alaska. We plan to make the drive from NC to Eielson Ak.
So as far as the route through the states, can you show us your route? Glad we could help plan your drive to Alaska. All those parks are a MUST! We always tell people to add on an extra week to see the parks on the way up or down. Your insight is really Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl), ordered mile post. If you have any specific questions as you are planning let us know!
Drove every road in Alaska that had a town at the end of it. Left New York state and drove The best part was from Glenallan to Valdez. Top of the world highway was awesome as was Dawson City Yukon. No flats tires. This book is by far better than Milepost which we had also, but would not buy again. Do not miss the Canadian Rockies. Hi David, that is quite the trip!
We enjoyed the area around Glenallan, stunning drive. Thanks for the book recommendation, the Mile Post is great for somethings, but not everything when driving to Alaska nowadays. And we totally agree it would be a sin not to stop in the Canadian Rockies. Can you say anything for how much cell service there is? The cell service along the Alcan highway up to Alaska was really only in the towns and very sparse along the route — the further north the worst it seemed to get.
However, if you are using your phone for GPS it will still work. I hope that makes sense, if you have questions about it please let us know. Lastly, keep in mind a majority of the drive is in Canada so check with your cell phone provider how your coverage works and what it will cost. We had T-mobile and outside the US it uses local carriers at no extra cost.
Safe travels and enjoy Alaska. My truck is an 08 with 28k miles. How did the exterior of your van hold up? Hi Thomas, The vast majority of the road is paved, all but the construction sections. There are some portions of the road which get frost heaving which makes some hard to see bumps, and Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl) stretches have frequent potholes, but overall the road was in much better shape than I expected.
Our minivan is a and we started the trip withmiles. Our van had a few chips before we started so I can tell you if we got any Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl) ones, but nothing major. If you were to run into mechanical trouble there are people on this road and they look after each other.
If someone was broke down there was always someone there helping out. As long as you prepare for the basics you should be in good shape. If you have more questions feel free! Have fun planning and safe travels! We made the trip this summer also from Wisconsin in my vintage Pinto Cruising Wagon.
We took 46 days. Had a Great Time! We made it all the way to Deadhorse, the farthest north you can drive in North America! Plan to do it again? We possibly passed you on the drive to Alaska! How was the drive to Deadhorse?
What was your favorite place in Alaska? We would totally do it again, would you? Hi I have made the trip four times! Either going or coming. I never had any issues at all. I camped out in a tent every time. Cooked meals on the tailgate of my truck.
It is a spectacular drive! The Cassiar highway is worth doing also! I met some interesting people each time. I highly recommend doing it! You do meet some amazing people along the way. We too just pulled over and slept in our van.
Can you share more details about your itinerary? Also, why did you choose campervan over a regular vehicle. We knew we were driving to Alaska but wanted to take our time getting there.
Having a campervan gives us the freedom to stop and stay as long as we want PLUS we just pay to camp vs a hotel. We are no strangers to real camping in a tent, we built our campervan a month after camping in Africa for 68 nights yes you saw that right from Nairobi Kenya to Cape Town South Africa.
So after that trip we had no desire to set up a tent every night. The first time we ever campervanned was in New Zealand when we Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl) around the entire south island and we loved it.
When we came back to the USA we knew that is what we wanted to do. When we found an affordable van that fit a full-size bed we made it our campervan. Thanks so much for your Alaska trip writeup. Glad we could help plan your route driving to Alaska. Let us know if you have any Alaska itinerary questions.
Hi Bill I am also planning a trip to Alaska June in a skoolie. When are you going? Where are you coming from in coming from Merriville Indiana. Would be great to know someone on the road while traveling. Our entire road trip to Alaska was just over 10, miles as we spent some time in Banff, Jasper, Montana before driving to Alaska from Jasper. Vaccination card, you need to have a paper copy on you.
A picture of the vaccination card will not provide proof. COVID- molecular test results taken within the last 72 hours. Yes even if you are vaccinated you still need a negative test. Be prepared to be randomly selected by the agents at the border for testing. Expect worse than normal road conditions — There is a chance that the road crews will be delayed or slowed by the virus Have patience — Even in a normal year many of these places and businesses along the way have challenges getting supplies, but this year is going to be even tougher.
Cell Phone service and best carriers to a road trip to Alaska? How are the Roads to Alaska on the Alcan Highway in ? Banff National Park — Alberta, Canada One of the most picturesque places on the continent, Banff should really be part of your trip.
Do I need a full-size spare to drive to Alaska? Do I need extra jerry cans of gas to drive to Alaska? Random things you should know before driving the Alcan or Alaskan Highway: In British Columbia, if you are caught going more than 40 kph over the speed limit they will impound your car for 7 days.
We found this out when stopped going around 30 over, the trooper was nice enough to let us off with a warning because he was on his way to a missing person, lucky for us, not so much them. However, he made it seem like his hands would be tied if caught over 40 kph.
More info on B. Traffic Laws here. Canada restricts certain types of weapons from being brought into the country which includes pepper spray. This makes carrying bear spray into Canada a little bit of a gray area. Also on the restricted list are handguns and military-like assault weapons.
If declared you can bring in rifles and shotguns for hunting. You must register at the border and pay a fee. See a more comprehensive list and regulations on the RCMP official website. Are you planning to drive to Alaska? Or have you already done Jasper - Delay 1 (Vinyl) drive?
Share your questions and tips in the comments! This post may contain affiliate links, see our disclosure. The people here Alaska are very friendly. Alaska is more than 2. Do you have to have a passport to drive to Alaska?
Have a great drive up!
Dirty Back Road - The B-52s - The B-52s / Wild Planet (CD), Its Alright - Patti Rothberg - Between The 1 And The 9 (CD, Album), Dolannes Melodie - Various - Die Grössten Instrumentalhits - Das Beste (CD), Ah-Leu-Cha - Orig.-Take 2 - Charlie Parker - Charlie Parker Memorial (Vinyl, LP, Album), Good Of Thunder - Kitaro - Ten Years (CD), Black Winds Victoryant - VASSAFOR - Malediction (Cassette, Album), Martyrs - Die Entweihung - The Cage (Cassette, Album), Sound Xpress - X-Press 2 - Coast 2 Coast (CD), Love Will Save The Day - Whitney Houston - Whitney (Vinyl, LP, Album), Long Live Whatever - Mouth House - Heirs Of Custer (Cassette)