Category: Classic Rock

One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD)

I really am happy to see that happen and I really hope that we can continue that spirit. As he remembered his extensive career and all that he and his colleagues have together accomplished for the industry and the wider artist community, he took a moment to acknowledge the road ahead for entertainment law and the challenges to come. Change happens all the time But what we have to do and what we've learned to do And change is hard.

It can be abrupt. It can be unexpected. It can be painful. But it's important, and it has to happen. But I know that we are strong and resilient, and we will get through it. And when we come out the other side, we will be better, we'll be stronger and the world will be great. Fittingly, Dylan's eternal lyrics and Harleston's remarks nod to the ever-evolving music industry and the modern issues it faces, many of which were addressed by the entrants of the ELI Writing Competition.

As one of its core elements, ELI has supported promising law students and has fostered future careers in entertainment law, having provided more than students with scholarships to date. The event's popular yearly student writing competition and scholarship presentation acknowledge the outstanding law students who are seeking to push entertainment law into the future.

This year's writing competition entrants, who each addressed a compelling legal issue confronting the music industry and proposed a solution in their essays, tackled some of today's most timely and pressing matters in the field.

Christopher Chiang, a student at University of California, Los Angeles UCLA School of Law, won the writing competition with an essay proposing a sliding scale framework for copyright protection in music. Perhaps the most urgent issue and forthcoming change to affect the music industry today comes via California Assembly Bill 5, more commonly known as AB5.

The newly passed state statute aims to protect workers in the "gig economy," namely Uber drivers. However, its impact on the music industry could prove detrimental. Having gone into effect at the beginning ofAB5 today stands as one of the most timely and important issues for music creators' rights in I would say the one way to look at it is if somebody is providing you or your company or your artists or your producer or your songwriter a service that is 'core to the business,' they are now your employee.

Since its passing, the music biz and artist community have largely banded together to address AB5, with many from both sides of the industry launching online petitions and meeting with California lawmakers directly in an attempt to secure exemption from the law on behalf of the wider music industry. Ari Herstandan independent musician, author and music industry blogger, has been at the forefront of the AB5 debate since it went into law.

He's since gathered 50, petitions from California music professionals who are against the law. But much like any other major change to impact the business, the music industry is already making headway into addressing and alleviating the issues of AB5.

So we need the unions on board. They're all conceptually there It's frankly a lot of education on our business because it's weird and wacky and nuanced.

And even some of the unions that exist in our business don't really understand how it's evolved in the last 10 years. So it's just a lot of patience and education, but everyone's at the table and everyone is focused on a solution.

So as soon as this—hopefully it's an urgency bill—passes, everybody needs to write about it. Every lawyer needs to know this to be able to educate. So I encourage everybody here to follow this process along and, once this thing gets passed, to educate your clients on what is actually happening and that we have found a fix, hopefully.

But I think there's also another lesson that is more enduring: the lesson of when creators get involved [and] when creators speak. They make the difference here. When creators speak, policymakers listen. In the mids all record companies agreed to a common frequency response standard, called RIAA equalization.

Before the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred equalization, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with selectable equalization curves. Prestige Records released jazz records in this format in the late s; for example, two of their Miles Davis albums were paired together in this format.

Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at grooves per inch. The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7-inch mm 45 rpm disc, with a much larger center hole. For a two-year period from torecord companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds" see also Format war.

The 45 rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February Bymillion 45s had been sold. The 7-inch mm 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter-duration discs, typically containing one item on each side. The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the inch LP discs eventually provided up to one half-hour of recorded material per side.

The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as extended play EPwhich achieved up to 10—15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating and possibly compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. EP discs were cheaper to produce and were used in cases where unit sales were likely to be more limited or to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.

The large center hole on 45s allows easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. EPs were generally discontinued by the late s in the U. In the late s and early s, rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available.

Eventually, they were replaced by the three-speed record player. From the mids through the s, in the U. The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle meaning only one 45 could be played at a time or a larger adapter that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.

RCA Victor 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a " spider ". In countries outside the U.

During the vinyl era, various developments were introduced. Stereo finally lost its previous experimental status, and eventually became standard internationally.

Quadraphonic sound effectively had to wait for digital formats before finding a permanent position in the market place. The term "high fidelity" was coined in the s by some manufacturers of radio receivers and phonographs to differentiate their better-sounding products claimed as providing "perfect" sound reproduction.

After a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, especially stereo recordings, which became widely available ingave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of individual components for the home such as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and tape players.

Stereophonic sound recording, which attempts to provide a more natural listening experience by reproducing the spatial locations of sound sources in the horizontal plane, was the natural extension to monophonic recording, and attracted various alternative engineering attempts. EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of although the system was not exploited commercially until much later.

In this system, each of two stereo channels is carried independently by a separate groove wall, each wall face moving at 45 degrees to the plane of the record surface hence the system's name in correspondence with the signal level of that channel.

By convention, the inner wall carries the left-hand channel and the outer wall carries the right-hand channel.

While the stylus only moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally.

During playback, the movement of a single stylus tracking the groove is sensed independently, e. The combined stylus motion can be represented in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels.

In the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued first by Audio Fidelity followed by a translucent blue vinyl on Bel Canto Recordsthe first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back.

However, it was not until the mid-to-late s that the sales of stereophonic LPs overtook those of their monophonic equivalents, and became the dominant record type. The development of quadraphonic records was announced in These recorded four separate sound signals. One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD) was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal.

When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels. They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later surround sound systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today. This system encoded the front-rear difference information on an ultrasonic carrier.

CD-4 was less successful than matrix formats. A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the high frequency information. This was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom. The mids saw the introduction of dbx -encoded records labelled " dbx disc " for the audiophile niche market.

Encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages.

A decoder was commercially available [61] but only one demo record [62] is known to have been produced in this format. Since the system was designed with playback compatibility of records on equipment without a CX decoder in mind, the maximum achievable noise reduction was limited to about 20 dB A. A total of about CX-encoded disks were produced internationally. Availibility of encoded disks in any of these formats stopped in the mids.

In fact, the system was undocumentedly introduced into the market by several East-German record labels since The German reunification put an end to the further introduction of the system in Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra performance of Pictures at an Exhibitionconducted by Rafael Kubelikwas described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic.

The series of records was then named Mercury Living Presence. InMercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone. The center single microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space.

Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response. The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of three-to-two mix directly to the master recorder.

Through the s, s, and s, various methods to One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD) the dynamic range of mass-produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. RCA Victor introduced another system to reduce dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove. Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise.

Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies.

Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further. Also in the late s, " direct-to-disc " records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market. These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Also during this period, half-speed mastered and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.

A further late s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown inch singles released between and The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records.

The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side. ELPJa Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact.

The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records, and the laser does not play back colored vinyl or picture discs.

Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback. In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories.

In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs.

Terms such as "long-play" LP and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track records that play much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes.

Many pre LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side. The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players. The term "album", originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 rpm records each in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a compact disc.

The term EP is still used for a release that is longer than a single but shorter than an album, even if it is not on vinyl format. The usual diameters of the holes are 0. Many 7" singles pressed outside the US come with the smaller spindle hole size, and are occasionally pressed with notches to allow the center part to be "punched out" for playing on larger spindles. Sizes of records in the United States and the UK are generally measured in inches, e. LPs were inch records at first, but soon the inch size became by far the most common.

Generally, 78s were inch, but inch and 7-inch and even smaller were made—the so-called "little wonders". Flexi discs were thin flexible records that were distributed with magazines and as promotional gifts from the s to the s. This format was soon dropped as it became clear that the RCA Victor 45 was the single of choice and the Columbia inch LP would be the album of choice.

Most colors were soon dropped in favor of black because of production problems. However, yellow and deep red were continued until about Price, plant manager.

In the s, the government of Bhutan produced now-collectible postage stamps on playable vinyl mini-discs. The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side, running from the outside edge towards the center. The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle. The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus needle placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.

Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound exceptions include the Beatles ' Sgt. Increasingly from the early 20th century, [77] and almost exclusively since the s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves. Occasional records have been issued since then with a recording on only one side. In the s Columbia records briefly issued a series of less expensive one-sided 45 rpm singles.

The majority of non rpm records are pressed on black vinyl. The coloring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon blackwhich increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque. Some records are pressed on colored vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them "picture discs".

During the s there was a trend for releasing singles on colored vinyl—sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters. This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles. The actual dimension of a inch record is mm Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size. The record diameters are typically nominally mm, mm and mm. There is an area about 3 mm 0. The stylus is lowered onto the lead-in, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.

Between tracks on the recorded section of an LP record there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm 0. This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track. Towards the center, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out. At the very end of this section the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record.

On some recordings for example Sgt. Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches the wider spacing in the groove, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record.

Precisely because of this mechanism, most automatic turntables are incapable of playing any audio in the lock groove, since they will lift the arm before it reaches that groove. The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.

Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut. These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings". When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised or ridged outer edge and a raised label area, allowing records to be stacked onto each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage.

Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order. Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several inch or inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.

The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. During the early s, as a cost-cutting move, much of the industry began reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing.

The technique was marketed by RCA Victor as the Dynaflex g process, but was considered inferior by most record collectors. If stored correctly, v 5thinyl records are often said to "last forever". But if played often, deep scratches on the surface slowly destroy the records.

Unlike CD's however, a vinyl record isn't affected only by time passing. Vinyl is a material which is sensitive for high temperatures as well as uneven temperatures on different parts of a record. Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, which have been reported to have better sound than normal vinyl because of their higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play.

Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care. An exception is the propensity of g pressings to be slightly more prone to non-fill, when the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts.

This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point. Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control. The " orange peel " effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds.

Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD) of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel. This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range. With direct metal mastering DMMthe master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself.

As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove. Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a modulated groove into a blank record.

The blank records for cutting used to be cooked up, as needed, by the cutting engineer, using what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap", containing lead litharge, ozokerite, barium sulfate, montan wax, stearin and paraffin, among other ingredients. Cut "wax" sound discs would be placed in a vacuum chamber and gold-sputtered to make them electrically conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made.

Later, the French company Pyral invented a ready-made blank disc having a thin nitro-cellulose lacquer coating approximately 7 mils thickness on both sides that was applied to an aluminum substrate. Lacquer cuts result in an immediately playable, or processable, master record. If vinyl pressings are wanted, the still-unplayed sound disc is used as a mandrel for electroforming nickel records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers.

The electroformed nickel records are mechanically separated from their respective mandrels. This is done with relative ease because no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike with electroplating, in which the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent. The one-molecule-thick coating of silver that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically conductive reverse-plates onto the nickel record's face.

This negative impression disc having ridges in place of grooves is known as a nickel master, One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD) or "father". The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother". Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs known as "sons".

Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before deteriorating. The "sons" are then converted into "stampers" by center-punching a spindle hole which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming of the "father"and by custom-forming the target pressing profile. This allows them to be placed in the dies of the target make and model record press and, by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue.

In this way, several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc. When only a few hundred discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" for each sidethe "father" is removed of its silver and converted into a stamper. Production by this latter method, known as the "two-step process" as it does not entail creation of "sons" but does involve creation of "mothers", which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming future "sons" is limited to a few hundred vinyl pressings.

The pressing count can increase if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high. The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming make better stampers since they don't require silver removal which reduces some high fidelity because of etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and also because they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers".

Shellac 78s are fragile, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud pop with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely. Breakage was very common in the shellac era. He wanted to cry but could not. Salinger 's novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces I damn-near cried, it made me feel so terrible.

Another problem with shellac was that the size of the disks tended to be larger because it was limited to 80— groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to groove walls per inch. By the time World War II began, major labels were experimenting with laminated records. As stated above, and in several record advertisements of the period, the materials that make for a quiet surface shellac are notoriously weak and fragile.

Conversely the materials that make for a strong disc cardboard and other fiber products are not those known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface.

Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several inch or inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.

The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. During the early s, as a cost-cutting move, much of the industry began reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing. The technique was marketed by RCA Victor as the Dynaflex g process, but was considered inferior by most record collectors.

If stored correctly, v 5thinyl records are often said to "last forever". But if played often, deep scratches on the surface slowly destroy the records. Unlike CD's however, a vinyl record isn't affected only by time passing. Vinyl is a material which is sensitive for high temperatures as well as uneven temperatures on different parts of a record.

Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, which have been reported to have better sound than normal vinyl because of their higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play. Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care. An exception is the propensity of g pressings to be slightly more prone to non-fill, when the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts.

This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point. Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities.

In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control. The " orange peel " effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds. Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel.

This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range. With direct metal mastering DMMthe master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself. As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove.

Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a modulated groove into a blank record.

The blank records for cutting used to be cooked up, as needed, by the cutting engineer, using what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap", containing lead litharge, ozokerite, barium sulfate, montan wax, stearin and paraffin, among other ingredients.

Cut "wax" sound discs would be placed in a vacuum chamber and gold-sputtered to make them electrically conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made. Later, the French company Pyral invented a ready-made blank disc having a thin nitro-cellulose lacquer coating approximately 7 mils thickness on both sides that was applied to an aluminum substrate. Lacquer cuts result in an immediately playable, or processable, master record.

If vinyl pressings are wanted, the still-unplayed sound disc is used as a mandrel for electroforming nickel records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers. The electroformed nickel records are mechanically separated from their respective mandrels. This is done with relative ease because no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike with electroplating, in which the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent.

The one-molecule-thick coating of silver that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically conductive reverse-plates onto the nickel record's face. This negative impression disc having ridges in place of grooves is known as a nickel master, "matrix" or "father". The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother".

Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs known as "sons". Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before deteriorating. The "sons" are then converted into "stampers" by center-punching a spindle hole which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming of the "father"and by custom-forming the target pressing profile.

This allows them to be placed in the dies of the target make and model record press and, by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue. In this way, several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc.

When only a few hundred discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" for each sidethe "father" is removed of its silver and converted into a stamper. Production by this latter method, known as the "two-step process" as it does not entail creation of "sons" but does involve creation of "mothers", which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming future "sons" is limited to a few hundred vinyl pressings. The pressing count can increase if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high.

The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming make better stampers since they don't require silver removal which reduces some high fidelity because of etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and also because they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers".

Shellac 78s are fragile, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud pop with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely. Breakage was very common in the shellac era.

He wanted to cry but could not. Salinger 's novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces I damn-near cried, it made me feel so terrible. Another problem with shellac was that the size of the disks tended to be larger because it was limited to 80— groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to groove walls per inch.

By the time World War II began, major labels were experimenting with laminated records. As stated above, and in several record advertisements of the period, the materials that make for a quiet surface shellac are notoriously weak and fragile. Conversely the materials that make for a strong disc cardboard and other fiber products are not those known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface.

Although vinyl records are strong and don't break easily, they scratch due to its soft material sometimes resulting in ruining the record. Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely. Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops. In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats over and over.

This is the origin of the phrase " like a broken record " or "like a scratched record", which is often used to describe a person or thing that continually repeats itself. Vinyl records can be warped by heatimproper storage, exposure to sunlight, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover.

A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design. Standard practice for LPs was to place the LP in a paper or plastic inner cover. This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface. Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover.

A further limitation of the gramophone record is that fidelity steadily declines as playback progresses; there is more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the groove than exist at the smaller diameters close to the end of the side.

At the start of a groove on an LP there are mm of vinyl per second traveling past the stylus while the ending of the groove gives — mm of vinyl per second — less than half the linear resolution. Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm. Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal.

Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success. See more at phonograph. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions see Analog vs. It is notable, however, that one technical advantage with vinyl compared to the optical CD is that if correctly handled and stored, the vinyl record will be playable for decades and possibly centuries, [85] which is longer than some versions of the optical CD.

Guidelines for proper vinyl storage include not stacking records on top of each other, avoiding heat or direct sunlight and placing them in a temperature controlled area which will help prevent vinyl records from warping and scratching.

Collectors store their records in a variety of boxes, cubes, shelves and racks. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction. CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.

Gramophone sound includes rumble, which is low-frequency below about 30 Hz mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble. Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus.

This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the control signal restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD) sound itself.

Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble "tracking noise" and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about Hz.

High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as just above 0. Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day amplifiers have large power bandwidths.

For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel. If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced. High frequency hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and dirt and dust on the vinyl produces popping and ticking sounds.

The latter can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record before playback. Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.

With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the amplitude of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the amplitude at high frequencies is increased.

The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the high frequency noise. Thus more music will fit on the record, and noise is reduced. The current standard is called RIAA equalization. It was agreed upon in and implemented in the United States in ; it was not widely used in other countries until the s. Before that, especially fromsome different formulae were used by the record manufacturers. In Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C.

Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased. Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head.

Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary.

Miller in reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form. West in and later P. Voigt showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain.

This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of Western Electric licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.

Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard.

Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the — period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry. Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor. Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions.

The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions. Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises. Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1, Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10, Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetatelacquer —aluminum, and vinyl disc media.

When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike. Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below Hz.

The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization. Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics.

Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years. It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s.

Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn.

It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances.

Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording, which developed as early radio became popularbenefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios.

The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.

It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air.

As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.

Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.

Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems.

There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback.

The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback.

Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.

Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering.

Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.

Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices.

The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand.

Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. For a contemporary classical composition composed within the last 25 years, and released for the first time during the Eligibility Year.

Award to the librettist, if applicable. Best Music Video Award to the artist, video director, and video producer. Award to the artist, video director, and video producer. Given how this year has gone, perhaps you're ready to fast-forward to we're almost there! Beyond it no longer beingnext year has some other big things going for it, including Music's Biggest Night, a. Hopefully, you're as excited about the show as we are!

To help make sure you stay in the loop, read on to learn more important dates and details about GRAMMY nominations they were announced on Nov. It's Here! The health and safety of the artists, guests, crew and staff is always front of mind during every GRAMMYs, so, logistically, things will be a little different this year. One of the biggest days in music outside of the show itself is the nominations announcement, when hundreds of artists learn they're in the running for a golden gramophone.

You can peruse the complete nominees list here and rewatch the star-studded nominations annoucement livestream here. You can also find out who are the most-nominated artists this year here.

It is truly a moment when all the love, long hours and hard work that was put into the music feels worth it. Celebrate with the nominees in this joyful reactions roundup. Just ahead of the nominees announcement on Nov. But none of them involve changing or postponing the date," said Mason.

Whether it's with a crowd or not, we're going to try to take things to the next level," Mason added. More recently, on Sept. We've been looking at all of the [ awards] shows really closely and I've been talking with some of the people who put them together—the creative and also the business side. I think there have been some great examples of how to present music and awards at these One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD), and I think there's some other things that we're gonna do pretty differently.

The civic and social unrest deserves to be addressed, and we always encourage artists to voice their opinions, so I expect we'll see messages both from the artists' side and the Academy side. We can't wait for all the magical GRAMMY moments, epic performances and moving speeches—it's exactly what we need to start off on an inspirational note.

While you'll have to wait to closer to the show to find out who the performers and presenters are which are always announced in multiple waveswhat's certain is things will be off the chain. Following Ken Ehrlich's celebrated year run as the show's executive producer, Emmy Award-winning producer Ben Winston is taking over the reins. Additionally, several major changes to the voting guidelines and rulesthe latter which affects five award categories, go into effect this year. These updates, announced in June, reflect the Recording Academy's ongoing commitment to evolve with the musical landscape and to ensure that the nomination process and rules are more transparent and fair.

While this might appear subtle to those not familiar with the baggage the term "world music" carries, it represents an important honoring of its past and movement towards a more inclusive, adaptive future. The new name was decided after extensive conversations with artists, ethnomusicologists and linguists from around the world, who decided it was time to rename it with "a more relevant, modern, and inclusive term," an email sent to Recording Academy members explained.

They say change is the only constant in life. That's a mantra by which the music industry lives. And when it comes to entertainment law, change is what drives the business forward.

Every year, the ELI event unites the music business community and addresses some of the most compelling issues facing the music industry today. For over two decades, ELI has addressed the shifting landscape of entertainment law head on, providing a forum for legal thought leaders and honoring its own practitioners who are ensuring the industry adapts to the ever-changing music and entertainment industry.

It's no wonder, then, that this year's ELI Service Award honored Jeff Harleston, a music industry veteran who has faced virtually every sea change to directly challenge the entertainment law field.

First, amazing artists making great music.

Famous Inside - Stan Rogers - From Coffee House To Concert Hall (CD), 5. Szene. Schäm Dich, Du! - Franz Schreker – Kiel Opera Chorus, Kiel Philharmonic Orchestra*, Ulrich, Alternate Take - John Lennon - Mind Games Sessions (CD, Album), Concerto In D Major, RV 418 - Vivaldi* - Andrew Watkinson, Raphael Wallfisch, Nicholas Kraemer, City, Fortunes (Club Mix) - Visioner (2) - Fortunes (CD), Joey & Me - Various - Arista AOR Sampler (Vinyl, LP), The Black Crow - Songs: Ohia - The Lioness (Vinyl, LP, Album), Gud Tager Dig Frem, Vuelve - Nino Bravo - 50 Aniversario (CD), La La La - Kotz Nich (Baby Mix) - Dream Boyz Club - La La La (Weisse Rosen Aus Athen) (CD), The Darkside (Sean Dexter Remix), Endless Time - The Kimberlites - Cruise Of The Bigler (CD, Album), Go Power At Christmas - Peanut Butter Wolf - Badd Santa (A Stones Throw Records Xmas) (Vinyl, LP), Magnum - Funky Junky (Vinyl)

8 thoughts on “One Two Free - The Steve Davis Project - Quality Of Silence (SACD)

  1. Nov 20,  · Updated March 7, Given how this year has gone, perhaps you're ready to fast-forward to (we're almost there!). Beyond it no longer being , next year has some other big things going for it, including Music's Biggest Night, a.k.a. the dresdner-christstollen.biz Sunday, March 14, , on CBS, the 63rd GRAMMY Awards recognize excellence in music .

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