Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamicosviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia arabaminiatura e legatoria.
Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".
In xilografiaun'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cinadurante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente.
I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli. Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsail leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti.
Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta.
Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.
Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine.
Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa.
In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.
Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.
Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori.
Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra. Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore. Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. Column: Time to plan trip to seek out some color. First weekend of October will be unusually warm across greater San Diego.
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Your security and privacy are at the heart of what we do. Learn how Android protects you at every turn. Hands-free navigation and messaging. Just connect your phone and go. A powerful experience for entry-level smartphones. Ifs illegal to sleep at Heathrow unless you have a flight to catch, so along with the rest of Heathrow's homeless population, Eram has to wash and change her clothes every morning in order to not stand out from the crowd and be detected.
If she is, she faces a night in the cold bus terminal or worse, being thrown out into the rain. Broadway, a homeless charity, visits the airport weekly to offer the 4o airporfs homeless temporary accommodation, help to get travel documents for migrant workers and attempt to reconnect people with their families. But, as a Broadway worker points out, "Homelessness is a way of life It can be very difficult to convince people to receive help.
Justify your choices. C their speech. D their appearance. A She is hopeful that her life will get better. C She doesn't know how to help herself. D She doesn't see her situation changing. When do we use comparatives 8t superlatives? Write down your questions. Your partner is Eram. Act out your interview. Compare your lifestyle to Eram's. In three minutes write a few sentences. Which of these things can you see in the pictures A-D? Tell the class.
Listening 2 OYou will hear five people talking about problems in their homes or community. For speakerschoose from the list A-F what each speaker says. There is one extra sentence that you do not need to use. We work hard to keep our community looking good. The area isn't as good as it used to be. People have started to take pride in their community. Development is ruining our community spirit I've now found my ideal community. My community feels very unsafe. How many parts are there to the task?
What does each part involve? Imagine that the council wants to improve i life in the neighbourhood. Look at each of ' the problems and talk to each other about why each is a problem. Use the language in the box below and the Key vocabulary above to help you.
Study skills Decision-making When trying to make a decision with another student, remember that the question always has two parts and you must answer both parts of the question.
You can disagree with each other, but you should take turns to speak and try to reach a conclusion. On the other hand, I agree with you to a certain extent, but How did their attempt compare to yours? Another idea is to share garden space. Read the title of the text, the introduction and the subheadings.
How do you think sharing can help individuals and the communities they live in? Read again and think of the word which best fits each gapas in the example. Use only one word in each gap. Compare with a partner. Fill in: drill, Album), dust, rid, spirit, terrible, reusable, close, share, space.
No bike sharing in your town or city yet? If your destination is On average, a car is used This is a terrible waste, but there are now thousands of neighbourhood-based car sharing systems in cities around the world that enable you to find a car When did you last look in your wardrobe and consider how many of your clothes you haven't worn in the last 6 months?
One way to pass them on to someone Not only will you get rid You can do the same with books and other possessions Have you ever tried any of these ideas? If not, which would you like to try? Tell the class, using the phrases in Ex. ICT Do some research to find out about a community sharing scheme e. Find out: what it's called, what its purpose is, how it's used. Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay giving your views on the following statement.
There are both advantages and disadvantages to living in a block of flats. Write your essay words. What style will you write it in? Which of the following points are pros and which are cons?
Can you add any more ideas? Firstly, flats are usually conveniently located close to town centres. This means that amenities and facilities such as shops and banks are close by. In addition, living in a block of flats can be quite cheap. Rents and household bills are usually reasonable and residents can save on expensive car parking or public transport costs as their home may be near enough to work or college to walk there. Lastly, residents can often enjoy a great community spirit in blocks of flats.
This is because they live so close together. On the other hand, there can be plenty of disadvantages to living in flats. To start with, the blocks are often in unattractive, inner city areas. Also, life can be uncomfortable there. City flats are often cramped and noisy, for example, with little privacy and storage space. Also, they rarely have outside space.
For example, there is often no private garden. I believe that sometimes the pros outweigh the cons and, other times, vice versa. Which paragraph s contain s : the arguments against? Replace each one with an alternative. Consequently, As a result. Also, What is more.
Not only j this, but However, even though, although. In contrast. Nonetheless to conclude: All in all. In summary. Therefore, To sum up. Taking everything into account. In conclusion. Replace the topic sentences with other appropriate ones.
Which is the topic sentence? FAMI To start with, they can keep an eye on your house when you're not at home. There are many reasons why using a bike to get around a city is a good idea. Choose either the beginning or the ending and write an alternative one using different techniques. You have seen the following notice in an international student magazine. Essays wanted! Even though city centres can be dirty, chaotic places, many people still prefer to live in them. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in the city centre?
Follow the plan below. What do you expect to read about? Read the text to find out. GR5-GR6 0 Choose the correct tenses. Give reasons. Check in the Grammar Reference section. Don't worry about making the restaurant reservation. This dish looks delicious. Look at that pile of dishes Here are the tickets. What are you going to do this weekend?
What are you doing tonight? What do you think you will do next summer? Say four things you have learnt from it. How are attitudes towards eating insects changing and why? Would you like to eat them?
Write a few sentences about this, then read them to your partner or the class. Which device; can help you travel through time; can make you disappear; enables you to control electrical items using your brain; replicates different foods!
Q Listen and read to find out. Read the text again. For questionschoose from the texts A-D. The texts may be chosen more than once. Which development s make some people concerned about using it? Ij will have been the inventor's main focus? Until now, though, this was all a world of the imagination, but that's changing as new scientific discoveries move ever closer to science fiction!
However, its possibilities now go far beyond just the gaming industry. They hope that one day paralysed people will be walking again simply by thinking about moving their limbs. Some have expressed doubts about all this, however. Well, quite close, actually! Ali Aliev of the University of Texas demonstrated on YouTube how to make something invisible at the flick of a switch using the same principle as a desert mirage.
In a mirage, heat bends light out of shape creating the illusion of water, a trick of the light that has fooled many hot and thirsty travellers. Aliev has done the same, but at much higher temperatures. By heating carbon nanotubes which look like strands of thread, he was able to bend light enough to hide the tubes from view. Check these word colonise, galaxy, control, levitate, swamp, wirelessly, disabled, paralysed, limbs, hack into, mind-boggling, invisibility cloak, prototype, flick, mirage, bend, illusion, fool, nanotube, strand, thread, mouth-watering, crack the secret, nanotechnology, replicate, saliva, far-fetched, circulating, swirl, stir, beam, emerge, sceptical Three-course chewing gum Violet Beauregarde paid the price after she ignored warnings not to eat the sweets in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.
But now, food scientist Dave Hart thinks that soon he will have cracked the secret to turning this weird invention into a reality and creating a similar three-course meal flavour chewing gum. Unfortunately it could be some time before the gum is created. B: By the end of the month, I B: No.
By the time we get there, she I think we What will you have done by the age of 25? Write a few sentences. What invention from science fiction would you like to see become a reality in our everyday lives and why? Write a paragraph about this, then read it to the class.
For many, it is a difficult place to live. The air is thick with moisture making you sweat constantly and you are They are Cajuns, In their stilt houses above the marshes, they grow their own vegetables such as okra and black-eyed peas. But amazingly, their diet also The day alligator hunt takes Travelling the waterways in their boats, hunters try to They then throw out r - lines with rotten meat " hooked onto them to.
They have to be very careful and predict alligator movements. They can easily do a death roll in the water when they spin wildly. Despite the danger, the Cajuns One alligator hunter, Troy Landry, However, he has enormous respect for the reptiles. In fact, the Swamp People worked with authorities to protect alligators after they almost Now, too many alligators upset the balance of the ecosystem, so authorities let hunters catch some alligators each season. They give each hunter tags restricting the number of alligators they can hunt in order to sell their meat and skins.
The community is Prices for skins are always changing, which means the hunters have to look for other work such as catching shrimp and giving alligator What do you think makes them unique? Read again. For questionsA, B. C or D best fits each gap. Make notes about the Swamp People from the text under the headings; who they are, what they eat, alligator hunting season, hunting problems. Use the notes to compare your lifestyle to theirs.
The Swamp People live in I live in Tell the class all about them. What kind of event is each? Which one would you like to go to? What on earth is that? What do you expect it to be about? Pre-contest entertainment will include trampoline St acrobat show and live bands. Which phrases show hesitation? Let me see I don't think so. Well, I'm thinking of going to Nathan's hot dog eating contest.
To what?! I know, it sounds crazy! It's the USA's most famous competitive eating event. It's been taking place since So, what's So Fine - Lakeside - Party Patrol (CD all about? Last year the winner managed to eat 62! That's unbelievable! I went last year and I really enjoyed myself. There were some great performers before the contest too like trampoline shows and live bands. So would you like to come with me? Oh, come on, it'll be fun! It's free and the food is great.
OK then, why not? That's great! I'll call you on Friday to make the arrangements, then. OK, I'll speak to you then. I'm not sure yet. I 2 A: Shall we go to the camel race tomorrow? B: Oh B: Hmm Speaking g Use the sentences in Ex. Ask why. Ask what it is. Ask what it's all about.
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