So don't be shy! Many of our volunteers have never recorded anything before LibriVox. The roles involved in making a LibriVox recording. Not all volunteers read for LibriVox. If you would prefer not to lend your voice to LibriVoxyou could lend us your ears.
Proof listeners catch mistakes we may have missed during the initial recording and editing process. Eure-et-Loir Gard Gers Gironde Guadeloupe Guyane Haute-Corse 2B. Haute-Garonne Haute-Loire Haute-Marne Hautes-Alpes Haute-Savoie Haute-Vienne Haut-Rhin Hauts-de-Seine Ille-et-Vilaine Indre Indre-et-Loire Jura Landes Loire Loire-Atlantique Loiret Loir-et-Cher Lot-et-Garonne Maine-et-Loire Manche Marne Assente nel libro antico.
I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva. Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio.
Nel libro antico i "nervi" sono i supporti di cucitura dei fascicoli. I nervi possono essere lasciati a vista e messi in evidenza attraverso la "staffilatura"oppure nascosti in modo da ottenere un dorso liscio.
Nel libro moderno i nervi sono di norma finti, apposti per imitare l'estetica del libro antico e conferire importanza al libro. Se esse fanno parte integrante del testo sono chiamate illustrazioni. Esse hanno una numerazione di pagina distinta da quella del testo; vengono impresse su una carta speciale, quasi sempre una carta patinata. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — "Libri" rimanda qui.
Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libri disambigua. Disambiguazione — Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libro disambigua. Pagina del Codex Argenteus. Storia, tecnica, strutture. Arma di Taggia, Atene,p. All , Rock Da House (Original Club Mix) - Krafft - Rock Da House (Vinyl) you.
URL consultato il 15 agosto There are , of them. At least until Sunday. URL consultato il 5 giugno Scribes, Script and Booksp. Dover Publicationsp.
Libro VI, capitolo Cambridge University Presspp. Casson, op. Solo codici venivano usati dai cristiani per far copie delle Sacre Scritture e anche per altri scritti religiosi. Gli undici codici biblici di questo periodo sei con la Septuaginta e cinque con parti del Nuovo Testamento sono su codici. Colin H. Roberts e T. ISBN Hagedorn et al. Blanchard cur. Ritrovamenti del III secolo : di cui 15 sono codici greci di pergamena e 2 latini di pergamena; IV secolo : di cui 56 in pergamena; V secolo : di cui 46 in pergamena.
Willis su Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studiesp. Scribes, Script and Bookspp. Saint Benedict and His Monks. Staples Press Ltdpp. Latin Palaeographypp. URL consultato il 26 agosto archiviato dall' url originale il 4 dicembre Oxfordp.
URL consultato il 20 agosto archiviato dall' url originale il 19 agosto Altre edizioni: —84,—93 edizione italiana, Literary machines URL consultato il 10 gennaio Altri progetti Wikiquote Wikizionario Wikimedia Commons. Portale Editoria. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions in order to grow larger molecules e. In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules e.
Without water, these particular metabolic processes could not exist. Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen.
Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7.
Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibiansspend portions of their lives in water and portions on land.
Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungsalthough some species of fish, such as the lungfishhave both. Marine mammalssuch as dolphins, whales, ottersand seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin.
Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes see insect and mollusc siphons and gills Carcinus. However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialization for respiration in water. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. Some marine diatoms — a key phytoplankton group.
Squat lobster and Alvinocarididae shrimp at the Von Damm hydrothermal field survive by altered water chemistry. Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamiathe so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates ; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile.
The early Indus Valley Civilization c. Rome was also founded on the banks of the Italian river Tiber. Islands with safe water ports, like Singaporehave flourished for the same reason.
In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillationor by a range of other methods.
More than million people do not have access to safe drinking water. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful to humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe wateror "safe for bathing". Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations typically 1 part per million ppm for drinking water, and 1—2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water.
Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light. Water reclamation is the process of converting wastewater most commonly sewagealso called municipal wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Freshwater is a renewable resource, recirculated by the natural hydrologic cyclebut pressures over access to it result from the naturally uneven distribution in space and time, growing economic demands by agriculture and industry, and rising populations.
Currently, nearly a billion people around the world lack access to safe, affordable water. Inthe United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals for water to halve by the proportion of people worldwide without access to safe water and sanitation. Progress toward that goal was uneven, and in the UN committed to the Sustainable Development Goals of achieving universal access to safe and affordable water and sanitation by Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some five million deaths a year are caused by water-related diseases.
The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1. The most substantial human use of water is for agriculture, including irrigated agriculture, which accounts for as much as 80 to 90 percent of total human water consumption. Access to fresh water is often taken for granted, especially in developed countries that have build sophisticated water systems for collecting, purifying, and delivering water, and removing wastewater.
But growing economic, demographic, and climatic pressures are increasing concerns about water issues, leading to increasing competition for fixed water resources, giving rise to the concept of peak water. An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population.
It found that a fifth of the world's people, more than 1. A further 1. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in the future, but that continuation of today's food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industries and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.
Water scarcity is also caused by production of water intensive products. For example, cotton : 1 kg of cotton—equivalent of a pair of jeans—requires While cotton accounts for 2. Significant environmental damage has been caused: for example, the diversion of water by the former Soviet Union from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers to produce cotton was largely responsible for the disappearance of the Aral Sea.
Water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation. On 7 Aprilthe gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one-hundredth of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice". Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one Rock Da House (Original Club Mix) - Krafft - Rock Da House (Vinyl) of water. The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system was based on the triple point of water, defined as exactly Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen, but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes oxygen, oxygen, and hydrogen-2 deuterium.
The percentage of the heavier isotopes is very small, but it still affects the properties of water. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less heavy isotopes than seawater. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though the British Dietetic Association advises that 2.
Healthy kidneys can excrete 0. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, putting them at risk of water intoxication hyperhydrationwhich can be fatal. An original recommendation for water intake in by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods.
Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. The Institute of Medicine US recommends that, on average, men consume 3 liters 0. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and fecesthrough sweatingand by exhalation of water vapor in the breath.
With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.
Humans require water with few impurities. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. The single largest by volume freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia.
The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. Most of the personal water use is due to showeringdoing the laundry and dishwashingreaching hundreds of liters per day per person in developed countries.
The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy. Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst.
In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water. In organic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the Rock Da House (Original Club Mix) - Krafft - Rock Da House (Vinyl) well and is amphoteric acidic and basic and nucleophilic.
Nevertheless, these properties are sometimes desirable. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research.
Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. Water vapor is used for some processes in the chemical industry. An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane. Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchangedue to its availability and high heat capacityboth for cooling and heating. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea.
It's especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization. A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam.
In almost all thermal power stationswater is used as the working fluid used in a closed-loop between boiler, steam turbine, and condenserand the coolant used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower.
In the United States, cooling power plants is the largest use of water. In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. In most nuclear reactorswater is both a coolant and a moderator.
This provides something of a passive safety measure, as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down. However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling.
Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid.
Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosionwhich may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces, and of a hydrogen explosion, when substances which react with water, such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal, charcoalor coke graphite, decompose the water, producing water gas.
The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disasteralthough the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time the reactor's own water cooling system. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of a reaction between steam and hot zirconium. Some metallic oxides, most notably those of alkali metals and alkaline earth metalsproduce so much heat on reaction with water that a fire hazard can develop.
The alkaline earth oxide quicklime is a mass-produced substance that is often transported in paper bags. If these are soaked through, they may ignite as their contents react with water.
Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiingboatingsurfing and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skatingare played on ice.
Lakesides, beaches and water parks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming, and fountains and other water features are popular decorations.
Some keep fish and other flora and fauna inside aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans Rock Da House (Original Club Mix) - Krafft - Rock Da House (Vinyl) use water for snow sports i. The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services including sewage treatment to households and industry. Water supply facilities include water wellscisterns for rainwater harvestingwater supply networksand water purification facilities, water tankswater towerswater pipes including old aqueducts.
Atmospheric water generators are in development. Drinking water is often collected at springsextracted from artificial borings wells in the ground, or pumped from lakes and rivers.
Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Water may require purification for human consumption. This may involve the removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes.
Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes.
Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.
The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systemstanker delivery or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge.
Reducing usage by using drinking potable water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, seawater is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve freshwater resources. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter.
Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population, victims of this pollution.
Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. Municipal and industrial wastewater are typically treated at wastewater treatment plants. Mitigation of polluted surface runoff is addressed through a variety of prevention and treatment techniques. See Surface runoff Mitigation and treatment.
A water-carrier in India, In many places where running water is not available, water has to be transported by people. Reverse osmosis RO desalination plant in BarcelonaSpain. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances, or to wash products or process equipment.
Processes such as miningchemical pulpingpulp bleachingpaper manufacturingtextile production, dyeing, printing, and cooling of power plants use large amounts of water, requiring a dedicated water source, and often cause significant water pollution.
Water is used in power generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source.
The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Typically a dam is constructed on a river, creating an artificial lake behind it. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators. Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting.
It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating, or prevent saw blades from overheating. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines, such as the steam turbine and heat exchangerin addition to its use as a chemical solvent. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Pollution includes discharged solutes chemical pollution and discharged coolant water thermal pollution.
Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. Boilingsteamingand simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state, steam. Water also plays many critical roles within the field of food science. Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water.
The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes, as well as air pressurewhich is in turn affected by altitude. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure that occurs at higher elevations.
One mole of sucrose sugar per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0. Solutes in water also affect water activity that affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.
Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product, as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water hardness is classified based on concentration of calcium carbonate the water contains.
According to a report published by the Water Footprint organization ina single kilogram of beef requires 15 thousand liters Rock Da House (Original Club Mix) - Krafft - Rock Da House (Vinyl). Water for injection is on the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation.
The formation of stars is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas. On 22 Julya report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing " trillion times more water than all of Earth's oceans combined" around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth.
According to the researchers, the "discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence". Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxythe Milky Way.
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