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Petersburg, Russia. A foam formulation for the delivery of microbial biological control agents - Abstract Only Dunlap, C. A foam formulation for the delivery of microbial biological control agents [abstract].
Pilot-scale production and stabilization of microsclerotia of the potential mycoherbicide Mycoleptodiscus terrestris using deep-tank fermentation and air-drying. Pilot-scale production and stabilization of microsclerotia of the potential mycoherbicide Mycoleptodiscus terrestris using deep-tank fermentation and air-drying [abstract].
Aquatic Plant Management Meeting. Identifying fungal bioinsecticides that are suitable for production using liquid culture fermentation - Abstract Only Jackson, M. Identifying fungal bioinsecticides that are suitable for production using liquid culture fermentation [abstract]. United States of America and Mexico Symposium. Per MAJ: This abstract was given to the meeting attendees without a page number. Production of fungal bioinsecticides in liquid cultivation media - Proceedings Jackson, M.
Production of fungal bioinsecticides in liquid cultivation media. In: Proceedings of Managing Fermentors Workshop. Evaluation of the desiccation tolerance of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Deuteromycotina: Hyphomyces using a lab- scale, air-drying chamber with controlled relative humidity - Peer Reviewed Journal Jackson, M.
Evaluation of the desiccation tolerance of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Deuteromycotina: Hyphomyces using a lab-scale, air-drying chamber with controlled relative humidity. Development of Mycolepodiscus terrestris as a biological control of Hydrilla [abstract].
A foam formulation of paecilomyces fumosoroseus, an entomopathogenic biocontrol agent. Pathogenicity of blastospores and conidia of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against larvae of the mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis mulsant. Southwestern Entomologist. The biotechnology of producing and stabilizing living, microbial biological control agents for insect and weed control.
In: Hou, C. Liquid culture production of microsclerotia of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: A potential biological control agent for the management of hydrilla. DOI Biocontrol of hemp sesbania [sesbania exaltata raf.
Weed Sci. Hydrophobic and electrostatic cell surface properties of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. Factors that influence the desiccation tolerance and storage stability of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus [abstract].
MC3, p. Cold shock during liquid production increases storage shelf-life of Cryptococcus nodaensis OH Cell surface properties of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus paecilomyces fumosoroseus [abstract]. Abstract Impact of carbon and nitrogen nutrition on the quality, yield, and composition of blastospores of the bioinsecticidal fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Influence of formulation additives on the desiccation tolerance and storage stability of blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes. Production and stabilization of microsclerotia of the bioherbicide Mycoleptodiscus terrestris produced using deep-tank fermentation [abstract]. Weed Science Society of America Meeting. Methods for producing stable, effective microbial insecticides. Laboratory session.
Advances in developing biological control products active against fusarium head blight of wheat [abstract].
Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Krasnodar, Russia. Book 3, p. Cold shock increases air-drying survival of Cryptococcus nodaensis OH Formulation of Bacillus spp. Strategies for producing stable, effective fungal biocontrol agents using liquid culture fermentation. Liquid culture production of blastospores of the bioinsecticidal fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus using portable fermentation equipment.
Mixing insect diseases to kill pecan weevils. Production and formulation of microbial products active against plant pests. Moscow, Russia. A Paecilomyces fumosoroseus mutant overproducing chitinase displays enhanced virulence against bemisia tabaci. World Journal Of If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) and Biotechnology.
Designing experiments for evaluating fungal cultures and harvesting and drying fungal propagules. In: Galan-Wong, L. Quintero-Ramirez, R. Quintero-Zapata, I. Procesos Biotecnologicos. Primera Edicion. Four 5. In the CD group, the mean age of the group was 32 years 15—62 yearsand Except for 12 8. One-hundred and seven When comparing the mean values of the serological markers between patients with and without disease activity, we found values of lymphocytes 1. Inflammatory markers, such as CRP By contrast, compared with the CD patients in remission period, in active CD patients, serological markers had higher mean values, being these differences statistically significant for WBC 8.
An LMR cutoff value of 3. Recent studies have confirmed fecal calprotectin is the best biomarker for evaluating disease activity in IBD patients [ 2021 ].
However, it is limited in clinical practice owing to its cost and discommodious sample collecting and processing. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serological biomarkers to determine the disease activity in UC and CD patients, as the biomarkers were universally monitored at routine clinical practice and thus easily accessible.
However, the results of previous studies were disappointing, owing to the two biomarkers CRP and ESR with low sensitivity and specificity for reflecting the bowel inflammation [ 2223 ]. Previous studies have shown hypercoagulable state was associated with intestinal inflammation state, and serum fibrinogen level was correlated with the severity of the acute phase response [ 2425 ].
A decreased serum albumin level has also been described to associate with increased systemic inflammatory load [ 26 ]. In this respect, in addition to the serum white blood differentials, we also investigated the biomarkers mentioned above. In the current study, we found a significant association between elevated monocytes and CRP in patients with active UC compared with those with inactive UC, as well as decreased lymphocytes and LMR in patients with active UC, while further multivariate analysis showed a significant lower LMR was found in patients with active UC.
To get the more accurate results, we excluded the patients who had got medications corticosteroid, thiopurines, etc before the study, taking into account the potential influences that medications could have on the outcomes. Besides, infections are also confounders that can affect the leukocyte differential counts. Therefore, CDI, one of the active infections, was also examined in this study.
Moreover, previous studies in patients with IBD have strongly revealed that their lymphocyte function is abnormal at both the peripheral and mucosal level [ 27 ]. NLR was first identified as a parameter of systemic inflammation in [ 28 ], and it has been extensively reported thereafter in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions.
Factors such as medications can influence the leukocyte-type counts. We know steroids can increase neutrophil count and subsequently the NLR. In this study, as mentioned above, we accounted for the potential confounders by enrolling only the initially diagnosed IBD patients, and other leukocyte subtypes and ratios were examined.
Monocytes, a subset of leukocytes, differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells in the inflamed tissues, involving in innate immunity by releasing proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns [ 30 — 32 ]. Thus, activation of monocytes is prospected to be initiated during the active phase of IBD. Cherfane et al. Similarly, our data revealed a significant association between monocytosis and disease activity of IBD, as well as the LMR.
An LMR value lower than 3. However, its diagnostic accuracy in differentiating disease activity of CD was undesirable. Our findings can be explained by the role that monocytes and lymphocytes play in the innate immune responses in such an inflammatory disease as IBD.
There are several strengths for this study. Firstly, it is a prospective study to prove the utilities of inflammatory biomarkers for severity stratification in patients with UC and CD. To our knowledge, there are limited data for analyzing the efficacy of these biomarkers in CD.
Secondly, the study cohort is homogenous, in which the diagnosis and severity disease evaluation were allocated based on standardized definitions. Additional strengths of If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) study were inclusion of active disease, quiescent disease, CDI, and taking into account the influence of medications.
However, this was a single-center cohort with a relatively small sample size. Further work with multicenter studies to assess the biomarkers is warranted. This relation may be interpreted in two ways, according as we require the heat absorbed in terms of the change of pressure or volume. In the notation of the calculus the relations become. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion coefficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.
The most instructive example of the application of relations 1 and 2 is afforded by the change of state of a substance at constant temperature and pressure.
Starting with unit mass of the substance in the first state e. If now the substance in the 'state B is entirely converted at constant temperature and pressure into the second state e. Ratio and Difference of Specific Heats.
If, starting from E, the same amount of heat h is restored at constant pressure, we should arrive at the point F on the adiabatic through B, since the substance has been transformed from B to F by a reversible path without loss or gain of heat on the whole. Substituting for H its value from 3and employing the notation of the calculus, we obtain the relation. EF is the change of volume corresponding to a If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) of pressure BE when no heat is allowed to escape and the path is the adiabatic BF.
These changes of volume are directly as the compressibilities, or inversely as the elasticities. If we write K for the adiabatic elasticity, and k for the isothermal elasticity, we obtain. The value of the specific heat S at constant pressure can always be determined by experiment, and in practice is one of the most important thermodynamical properties of a substance.
The value of the specific heat s at constant volume can also be measured in a few cases, but it is generally necessary to deduoe it from that at constant pressure by means of relation 6. The amount of heat absorbed in any small change of state, as from E to G in fig. We thus obtain the expressions. The two differ by the area BEC, which can be neglected if the change is small.
Intrinsic Energy. Since the change of energy is independent of the path, the finite change between any two given states may be found by integration along any convenient path.
It is generally convenient to divide the path into two steps, isothermal and isometric, or isothermal and isopiestic, and to integrate along each separately. We thus obtain the relation. Total Heat. It may conveniently be called the Total Heat, by a slight extension of the meaning of a term which has been for a long time in use as applied to vapours see Vaporization. This expression shows that the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature at constant pressure is equal to the specific heat at constant pressure.
For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam. The lines of constant energy on the diagram are called Isenergics. Ideal Gases. The coefficient of expansion at constant pressure is equal to the coefficient of increase of pressure at constant volume. The specific heats are independent of the pressure or density by equations 10 and The specific heats may be any function of the temperature consistently with the characteristic equation provided that their difference is constant.
Deviations of Actual Gases from the Ideal State. This follows because a higher test sensitivity implies a higher likelihood that a pool containing an infected specimen will test positive, necessitating further individual testing for all subjects in the pool. As a result, optimal pool sizes are non-increasing in test sensitivity Fig 1. Expected number of low-risk subjects screened with 7, tests a under different strategies and b under different assumed test sensitivities, versus true test sensitivity, and the expected number of If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) False-negative cases and d Missed and False-negative Cases versus Test Sensitivity.
The sensitivity If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) the test may not be known with certainty. To examine the effect of the test sensitivity estimate, we calculate the robust pool sizes for the low-risk group for the week spanning April-2 to April-8, using three assumed test sensitivity values, of 0. Fig 5 B depicts the expected number of low-risk subjects that would be screened with 7, tests under a range of true test sensitivity values, Sein [0.
At the extremes, when the true sensitivity is 0. Next, we study the effect of pooling on the expected number of FN s for various test sensitivity values.
While pooling increases the number of FN s over individual testing for the same number of subjects Eqs 5 and 6it also allows for expanded testing, thus reducing potential missed cases over individual testing i. To illustrate this point, we consider again the low-risk subjects tested during the week spanning April-2 to April-8 in the Iceland dataset.
Fig 5 C displays the number of FN s for both robust pooling and individual testing for the 7, subjects tested under both strategiesas a function of test sensitivity, while Fig 5 D displays the FN s for robust pooling, and the sum of FN s and missed cases for individual testing, for 52, subjects that would have been screened under robust pooling with 7, tests.
These difficulties include dynamic disease prevalence, which leads to high uncertainty in current prevalence, a wide range of possible test sensitivity values, different risk groups, and limited testing resources. The proposed robust pooling strategy significantly reduces the expected number of tests required to accomplish the screening conducted in Iceland for COVID compared to individual testing, and the differences are more pronounced for the low-risk group, see Fig 3.
Overall, the reductions in the number of tests are These reductions are based on weekly forecasted point estimates and confidence intervals for the prevalence. The robust pooling strategy based on these forecasts does nearly as well as having perfect prevalence information for which the respective reductions are Thus, the proposed robust pooling strategy can be used to substantially expand COVID testing capacity.
This expansion is more pronounced at lower prevalence rates due to fewer follow-up tests and larger pool sizes. Dilution is an important issue when considering pooling, especially for large pools.
In our models, we use a maximum allowable pool size, n maxto limit the dilution effect, which is a viable practice in pooled testing, especially when lab-based data on the magnitude of the dilution effect for different pool sizes is scarce as is the case with COVID Informed by the research that describes pool sizes for which pooling does not significantly affect the test sensitivity for the PCR test for COVID see Introductionwe consider that n max is Our analysis Table 2 indicates that reducing n maxand thus further reducing the potential for dilution, does decrease the efficiency of robust poolng, but even at low values of n maxe.
As an alternative, if comprehensive data on the dilution effect for COVID become available, one can derive a pooled sensitivity function, as a function of pool size, and use this function in the analytical expressions Eqs 13 and 5 to model dilution e. This will be an important future research direction once such data become available.
We demonstrate the benefits of pooling in more detail using the week of April-2 to April-8 of for the low-risk group with 7, low-risk subjects individually tested considering a test sensitivity of 0. In contrast to the 7, tests required for individual testing, robust pooling uses a pool size of 14, thus requiring pools. Given the true prevalence of 0. Therefore, for the pools, we have, on average, 0. Thus, with pooling, the 7, subjects would require 1, This If - Various - ・S・P・I・C・E・ By Punquestion (CD) is closely related to a cumulative reduction in testing time, which we illustrate using the same week assuming a PCR testing machine that has a capacity of 96 tests, that is, 96 tests can run at the same time [ 25 ], and assuming that a test run takes 2 hours.
Under individual testing, the number of machine runs isthus requiring hours to complete testing. For the pooled strategy, runs are required for the pools, plus runs for the expected individual follow-up tests, thus requiring 26 hours of testing in expectation, compared to hours for individual testing. Next we discuss the effect of test sensitivity on pooling by examining Fig 5which again considers the week of April-2 to April-8 of for the low-risk group of 7, subjects.
If the 7, tests were used in the pooled strategy, between 49, at a sensitivity of 1. This is a considerable difference, and as Fig 5 B depicts, even if the pooling strategy is derived under the wrong test sensitivity, pooling still does well, e. This reduction is due to using pools that are too small 13 versus 15 under the true sensitivity of 0. Fig 5 B suggests that a good strategy to handle uncertainty in test sensitivity is to pick the mid-point of the potential sensitivity range.
Next, we compare the FN s under the different strategies.
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