Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo.
Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta.
Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.
Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio.
Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate.
Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.
Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.
Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra. Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore.
Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Oltre al taglio "superiore" o di "testa" vi sono il taglio esterno, detto "davanti" o "concavo"e il taglio inferiore, detto "piede". I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo.
In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo. Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro. Sovente riporta un motto.
Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva.
Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio.
The main idea behind the music video was: "to do something with the moving image that was a mirror of what was happening musically". The album's ethereal artwork mirrors its "delicacy and introverted romance". Michael Hubbard of musicOMH commented positively on it, writing "the spine of the CD is entirely white, while the rest of the sleeve features innovative photography and artwork, preparing the listener before they even hear the album for something very special".
Feathers so white they evoke the purity of freshly fallen snow blanketing the ground outside while you sip a coffee by the fire, both hands curled around the mug's warm ceramic finish". Academic Nicola Dibben has likened Vespertine' s artwork and promotion to representations of the Greek myth of Leda and the Swanemphazising the erotic overtones of both. She stated:. The cover art to Vespertine [ For the first time in this context, however, she does not meet the viewer's gaze directly.
As in other visual representations of this myth, the entwined bodies of Leda and the swan permit a representation of erotic intimacy that would prove unacceptable if realised in a more literal fashion. Vespertine was released later than One Little Indian Records had intended. Its music video had premiered in February. By Septemberthe album had reached number 19 on the Billboard and the top spot on the Top Electronic Albums chart, with One Little Indian head Derek Birket declaring that the album had sold over 1.
Upon release, Vespertine received universal acclaim from music critics. At Metacriticwhich assigns a normalized rating out of to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 88, based on 28 reviews. Club ' s Keith Phipps found it to be: "an album both timeless and of the moment, an avant-garde electronic-pop exploration of classic themes". An enthusiastic review came from The Wirewhich felt that: "In the end, Vespertine commits its magic by daring to go places more obvious and more human than one would have ever expected.
The glittering sound fits the album's idea of inner riches, the treasure people keep hidden inside. She is a legend in her time. Billboard ' s Michael Paoletta applauded Vespertine for its "positive [introversion]", feeling some of the tracks "have the strength to bring tears of joy and pain to the eyes. Club Rolling Stone About. The information regarding lists including Vespertine is adapted from Acclaimed Musicexcept where otherwise noted.
Credits adapted from the liner notes of Vespertine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the term used in reference to phenomena observed during the evening hours, see Vespertine biology. The controversial music video for " Pagan Poetry ", directed by Nick Knightfeatures highly stylized images of unsimulated sexgoing in hand with Vespertine' s central theme of eroticism and intimacy. Fauna illustrations by Ernst Haeckelincluding the one pictured above, were used as a backdrop during the Vespertine World Tour.
See also: Vespertine World Tour. It's corny to make a soundtrack for making a sandwich, but I quite like it. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 9 September March Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 7 July All about Oscar: the history and politics of the Academy Awards.
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