Silver forms alloys with most other elements on the periodic table. The elements from groups 1—3, except for hydrogenlithiumand berylliumare very miscible with silver in the condensed phase and form intermetallic compounds; those from groups 4—9 are only poorly miscible; the elements in groups 10—14 except boron and carbon have very complex Ag—M phase diagrams and form the most commercially important alloys; and the remaining elements on the periodic table have no consistency in their Ag—M phase diagrams.
By far the most important such alloys are those with copper: most silver used for coinage and jewellery is in reality a silver—copper alloy, and the eutectic mixture is used in vacuum brazing. The two metals are completely miscible as liquids but not as solids; their importance in industry comes from the fact that their properties tend to be suitable over a wide range of variation in silver and copper concentration, although most useful alloys tend to be richer in silver than the eutectic mixture Most other binary alloys are of little use: for example, silver—gold alloys are too soft and silver— cadmium alloys too toxic.
Ternary alloys have much greater importance: dental amalgams are usually silver—tin—mercury alloys, silver—copper—gold alloys are very important in jewellery usually on the gold-rich side and have a vast range of hardnesses and colours, silver—copper—zinc alloys are useful as low-melting brazing alloys, and silver—cadmium— indium involving three adjacent elements on the periodic table is useful in nuclear reactors because of its high thermal neutron capture cross-sectiongood conduction of heat, mechanical stability, and resistance to corrosion in hot water.
The word "silver" appears in Old English in various spellings, such as seolfor and siolfor. The Balto-Slavic words for silver are rather similar to the Germanic ones e. They may have a common Indo-European origin, although their morphology rather suggest a non-Indo-European Wanderwort. Silver was one of the seven metals of antiquity that were known to prehistoric humans and whose discovery is thus lost to history. The situation changed with the discovery of cupellationa technique that allowed silver metal to be extracted from its ores.
While slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate that silver was being separated from lead as early as the 4th millennium BC and one of the earliest silver extraction centres in Europe was Sardinia in the early Chalcolithic period these techniques did not spread widely until later, when it spread throughout the region and beyond. When the Phoenicians first came to what is now Spainthey obtained so much silver that they could not fit it all on their ships, and as a result used silver to weight their anchors instead of lead.
Reaching a peak production of tonnes per year, an estimated silver stock of tonnes circulated in the Roman economy in the middle of the second century AD, five to ten times larger than the combined amount of silver available to medieval Europe and the Abbasid Caliphate around AD This production came to a nearly complete halt with the fall of the Roman Empire, not to resume until the time of Charlemagne : by then, tens of thousands of tonnes of silver had already been extracted.
Central Europe became the centre of silver production during the Middle Agesas the Mediterranean deposits exploited by the ancient civilisations had been exhausted. Most of these ores were quite rich in silver and could simply be separated by hand from the remaining rock and then smelted; some deposits of native silver were also encountered.
Many of these mines were soon exhausted, but a few of them remained active until the Industrial Revolutionbefore which the world production of silver was around a meagre 50 tonnes per year. With the discovery of America and the plundering of silver by the Spanish conquistadors, Central and South America became the dominant producers of silver until around the beginning of the 18th century, particularly PeruBoliviaChileand Argentina :  the last of these countries later took its name from that of the metal that composed so much of its mineral wealth.
As one historian put it, silver "went round the world and made the world go round. A Portuguese merchant in noted that silver "wanders throughout all the world In the 19th century, primary production of silver moved to North America, particularly CanadaMexicoand Nevada in the United States : some secondary production from lead and zinc ores also took place in Europe, and deposits in Siberia and the Russian Far East as well as in Australia were mined.
Today, Peru and Mexico are still among the primary silver producers, but the distribution of silver production around the world is quite balanced and about one-fifth of the silver supply comes from recycling instead of new production.
Proto-Elamite kneeling bull holding a spouted vessel; — BC; Ancient Egyptian figurine of Horus as falcon god with an Egyptian crown; circa BC; silver and electrum ; height: Ancient Greek tetradrachm ; — BC; diameter: 2. Ancient Greek gilded bowl; 2nd—1st century BC; height: 7. Roman plate; 1st—2nd century AD; height: 0.
Roman bust of Serapis ; 2nd century; Auricular basin with scenes from the story of Diana and Actaeon; ; length: 50 cm, height: 6 cm, width: 40 cm; Rijksmuseum Amsterdamthe Netherlands. French Rococo tureen; ; height: French Neoclassical ewer; —; height: Neo-Rococo coffeepot; ; overall: 32 x Hand mirror; ; height: Mystery watch ; ca. Silver plays a certain role in mythology and has found various usage as a metaphor and in folklore.
The Greek poet Hesiod 's Works and Days lines — lists different ages of man named after metals like gold, silver, bronze and iron to account for successive ages of humanity. But when good Saturnbanish'd from above, Was driv'n to Hell, the world was under Jove. Succeeding times a silver age behold, Excelling brass, but more excell'd by gold. In folklore, silver was commonly thought to have mystic powers: for example, a bullet cast from silver is often supposed in such folklore the only weapon that is effective against a werewolfwitchor other monsters.
Silver production has also inspired figurative language. Clear references to cupellation occur throughout the Old Testament of the Biblesuch as in Jeremiah 's rebuke to Judah: "The bellows are burned, the lead is consumed of the fire; the founder melteth in vain: for the wicked are not plucked away.
Reprobate silver shall men call them, because the Lord hath rejected them. Silver also has more negative cultural meanings: the idiom thirty pieces of silverreferring to a reward for betrayal, references the bribe Judas Iscariot is said in the New Testament to have taken from Jewish leaders in Jerusalem to turn Jesus of Nazareth over to soldiers of the high priest Caiaphas.
The abundance of silver in the Earth's crust is 0. It mostly occurs in sulfide ores, especially acanthite and argentiteAg 2 S. Argentite deposits sometimes also contain native silver when they occur in reducing environments, and when in contact with salt water they are converted to chlorargyrite including horn silverAgCl, which is prevalent in Chile and New South Wales. Most true silver deposits, as opposed to argentiferous deposits of other metals, came from Tertiary period vulcanism.
The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, 3 - Various - Silver World (CD), and lead-zinc obtained from PeruBoliviaMexicoChinaAustraliaChilePoland and Serbia. Silver is usually found in nature combined with other metals, or in minerals that contain silver compounds, generally in the form of sulfides such as galena lead sulfide or cerussite lead carbonate. So the primary production of silver requires the smelting and then cupellation of argentiferous lead ores, a historically important process.
The lead oxidises to lead monoxidethen known as lithargewhich captures the oxygen from the other metals present. The liquid lead oxide is removed or absorbed by capillary action into the hearth linings. Today, silver metal is primarily produced instead as a secondary byproduct of electrolytic refining of copper, lead, and zinc, and by application of the Parkes process on lead bullion from ore that also contains silver. For example, in copper production, purified copper is electrolytically deposited on the cathode, while the less reactive precious metals such as silver and gold collect under the anode as the so-called "anode slime".
This is then separated and purified of base metals by treatment with hot aerated dilute sulfuric acid and heating with lime or silica flux, before the silver is purified to over Commercial-grade fine silver is at least 3 - Various - Silver World (CD)Mexico was the top producer of silver 5, tonnes or Levels vary by depth and between water bodies.
Dissolved silver concentrations range from 0. In the Atlantic and Pacific, silver concentrations are minimal at the surface but rise in deeper waters. Silver is transported from the Atlantic to the other oceanic water masses.
Silver has increasing concentrations that follow the major oceanic conveyor belt that cycles water and nutrients from the North Atlantic to the South Atlantic to the North Pacific. There is not an extensive amount of data focused on how marine life is affected by silver despite the likely deleterious effects it could have on organisms through bioaccumulationassociation with particulate matters, and sorption. In fact, mercury is the only other trace metal that surpasses the toxic effects of silver; however, the full extent of silver toxicity is not expected in oceanic conditions because of its ability to transfer into nonreactive biological compounds.
In one study, the presence of excess ionic silver and silver nanoparticles caused bioaccumulation effects on zebrafish organs and altered the chemical pathways within their gills. Silver is not an easy metal for an organism to eliminate and elevated concentrations can cause death. Notable silver coins through the centuries include the Greek drachma the Roman denarius the Islamic dirham the karshapana from ancient India and rupee from the time of the Mughal Empire grouped with copper and gold coins to create a trimetallic standard and the Spanish dollar.
The ratio between the amount of silver used for coinage and that used for other purposes has fluctuated greatly over time; for example, in wartime, more silver tends to have been used for coinage to finance the war. Today, silver bullion has the ISO currency code XAG, one of only four precious metals to have one the others being palladiumplatinumand gold.
These blanks are then milled and minted in a coining press; modern coining presses can produce silver coins per hour. Silver prices are normally quoted in troy ounces.
One troy ounce is equal to The London silver fix is published every working day at noon London time. The major use of silver besides coinage throughout most of history was in the manufacture of jewellery and other general-use items, and this continues to be a major use today. Examples include table silver for cutlery, for which silver is highly suited due to its antibacterial properties. Western concert flutes are usually plated with or made out of 3 - Various - Silver World (CD) silver ;  in fact, most silverware is only silver-plated rather than made out of pure silver; the silver is normally put in place by electroplating.
Silver-plated glass as opposed to metal is used for mirrors, vacuum flasksand Christmas tree decorations. One drawback is the easy tarnishing of silver in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and its derivatives.
Including precious metals such as palladium, platinum, and gold gives resistance to tarnishing but is quite costly; base metals like zinccadmiumsiliconand germanium do not totally prevent corrosion and tend to affect the lustre and colour of the alloy. Electrolytically refined pure silver plating is effective at increasing resistance to tarnishing. The usual solutions for restoring the lustre of tarnished silver are dipping baths that reduce the silver sulfide surface to metallic silver, and cleaning off the layer of tarnish with a paste; the latter approach also has the welcome side effect of polishing the silver concurrently.
In medicine, silver is incorporated into wound dressings and used as an antibiotic coating in medical devices.
Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials are used to treat external infections. Silver is also used in some medical applications, such as urinary catheters where tentative evidence indicates it reduces catheter-related urinary tract infections and in endotracheal breathing tubes where evidence suggests it reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia. Silver ions interfere with enzymes in the bacteria that transport nutrients, form structures, and synthesise cell walls; these ions also bond with the bacteria's genetic material.
Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare, and domestic application: for example, infusing clothing with nanosilver particles thus allows them to stay odourless for longer. Silver and its alloys are used in cranial surgery to replace bone, and silver—tin—mercury amalgams are used in dentistry.
Silver is very important in electronics for conductors and electrodes on account of its high electrical conductivity even when tarnished. Bulk silver and silver foils were used to make vacuum tubes, and continue to be used today in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, circuits, and their components. Printed circuits and RFID antennas are made with silver paints,   Powdered silver and its alloys are used in paste preparations for conductor layers and electrodes, ceramic capacitors, and other ceramic components.
Silver-containing brazing alloys are used for brazing metallic materials, mostly cobaltnickeland copper-based alloys, tool steels, and precious metals. The basic components are silver and copper, with other elements selected according to the specific application desired: examples include zinc, tin, cadmium, palladium, manganeseand phosphorus.
Silver provides increased workability and corrosion resistance during usage. Silver is useful in the manufacture of chemical equipment on account of its low chemical reactivity, high thermal conductivity, and being easily workable. Silver crucibles alloyed with 0.
Copper and silver are also used when doing chemistry with fluorine. Equipment made to work at high temperatures is often silver-plated. Silver and its alloys with gold are used as wire or ring seals for oxygen compressors and vacuum equipment.
Silver metal is a good catalyst for oxidation reactions; in fact it is somewhat too good for most purposes, as finely divided silver tends to result in complete oxidation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and water, and hence coarser-grained silver tends to be used instead.
In the gas phase, glycol yields glyoxal and ethanol yields acetaldehydewhile organic amines are dehydrated to nitriles. The photosensitivity of the silver halides allowed for their use in traditional photography, although digital photography, which does not use silver, is now dominant.
The photosensitive emulsion used in black-and-white photography is a suspension of silver halide crystals in gelatin, possibly mixed in with some noble metal compounds for improved photosensitivity, developing, and tuning.
Colour photography requires the addition of special dye components and sensitisers, so that the initial black-and-white silver image couples with a different dye component. The original silver images are bleached off and the silver is then recovered and recycled. Silver nitrate is the starting material in all cases. The use of silver nitrate and silver halides in photography has rapidly declined with the advent of digital technology. From the peak global demand for photographic silver in , troy ounces or Nanosilver particles, between 10 and nanometres in size, are used in many applications.
They are used in conductive inks for printed electronics, and have a much lower melting point than larger silver particles of micrometre size. They are also used medicinally in antibacterials and antifungals in much the same way as larger silver particles.
Pure silver metal is used as a food colouring. It has the E designation and is approved in the European Union. Photochromic lenses include silver halides, so that ultraviolet light in natural daylight liberates metallic silver, darkening the lenses.
The silver halides are reformed in lower light intensities. Colourless silver chloride films are used in radiation detectors. Silver is also used for its antibacterial properties for water sanitisation, but the application of this is limited by limits on silver consumption.
Colloidal silver is similarly used to disinfect closed swimming pools; while it has the advantage of not giving off a smell like hypochlorite treatments do, colloidal silver is not effective enough for more contaminated open swimming pools. Small silver iodide crystals are used in cloud seeding to cause rain. Silver compounds have low toxicity compared to those of most other heavy metalsas they are poorly absorbed by the human body when digested, and that which does get absorbed is rapidly converted to insoluble silver compounds or complexed by metallothionein.
However, silver fluoride and silver nitrate are caustic and can cause tissue damage, resulting in gastroenteritisdiarrhoeafalling blood pressurecramps, paralysis, and respiratory arrest. Then, I decided to devote my research and my limited resources to collecting Continental Silver, particularly of small dimension, attaining the result of contain 3 - Various - Silver World (CD) and reduce spaces necessary to preserve my growing collection.
I was able to acquire some pieces of the 18th century and much more of the 19th century. Even though my main interest is for silver objects, in recent years I've begun to buy non-silver related items, including in my collection some pieces as cameo glass vases, "barbotine" dishes, portrait miniatures, shell cameo brooches, and others. At the present I continue to look for silver and objects of vertu pieces, with preference for items of uncommon shape or use, and I've extended the field of my research to the internet.
In this site I illustrate some of my preferred pieces. You may click on the item's index to see photos and description of the objects. I hope you'll like them. ASCAS is an association between collectors and lovers of antique silver. Its objective is to promote friendship between its members and to spread knowledge of antique silver items, their hallmarks and their workmanship techniques.
ASCAS has members throughout the world and every month publishes a monthly newsletter on its website www. It contains many interesting articles related to silver written by its members.
During his first appearance in the Future Arc, he is shown to have a cheerful disposition around his subordinates, especially toward Shoichi Irieeven though he knew of the latter's betrayal. He even threatens one of his Funeral Wreaths, Bluebell, after she suggests he kill Uni for her acting arbitrarily. Otherwise, this is only if they hold his interest; he hides his ruthlessness and cruelty behind a good-natured facade.
Once he "gets bored" of someone, he won't hesitate to have them killed. He will do anything to achieve his goal, not caring if it would mean sacrificing innocent people or destroying the world, even referring to them as his toys. In the present time, however, after his future-self was defeated by Tsuna, Byakuran had a change of heart after he was touched by Uni's kindness who saved him from his loneliness despite what he had done, even though he still retains his carefree and easy-going personality, which Gamma finds annoying most of the time.
His change was clearly proven when he protected Tsuna from Colonnello's Maximum Rifle simply for the sake of Uni, who has been kind to him from the bottom of her heart, stating that he would protect her. Due to Shoichi traveling to the future and meeting two versions of Byakuran, Byakuran is mentally connected to every other Byakuran living in the separate parallel universes.
This knowledge is utilized as a battle advantage: the Real Six Funeral Wreaths know about the techniques of the enemies he fought in these worlds.
However, Byakuran becomes greatly weakened and needs a day 3 - Various - Silver World (CD) recover after using this ability. It is also mentioned by Uni that Byakuran's powers are growing weaker over time. Reborn Wiki Explore. Katekyo Hitman Reborn! Episodes List of episodes OVA. DS Ore ga Boss!
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