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Records 2raumwohnung - Besser Gehts Nicht 12" It. Polina - S. CD, Album Elektra. Spirit Feat. Keep It That Way! This is most evident in Italy, where political and trading contacts with the East were strongest but, as the mural of St. Paul and the Viper see p. Both courts offered generous patronage, encouraging the growth of a network of wealthy monastic centers with highly productive workshops.
In England, the movement reached a watershed with the Winchester School of manuscript illumination. The term is a slight misnomer, since manuscripts in the distinctive Winchester style were produced in scriptoria in other centers, such as Canterbury and Bury St. Edmunds, not just in Winchester itself. He also took a strong interest in the arts. Aethelwold was skilled at metalwork himself, and there is little doubt that the lavish decorations in his Benedictional were created under his personal supervision.
Aethelwold, c. Aethelwold c. With 28 full-page illustrations, it is also one of the pinnacles of Anglo-Saxon art during its most productive phase. The most spectacular aspect is the decoration of the borders—elaborate trellises are covered in winding acanthus leaves, while some of the corners are dominated by large rosettes or roundels.
Figures from biblical stories interact with the borders, climbing up them or emerging from behind them, creating a rudimentary sense of depth. In England, this policy was echoed by Anglo-Saxon kings seeking to create a national identity. Carolingian art was a prime source of the Romanesque style. During the era of Charlemagne r. Mark, detail from the Ebbo Gospels, c. The Alfred Jewel, c. Ashmolean The Ottonians provided a bridge between Carolingian culture and the Romanesque style.
Decorative calligraphy from the Wernigerode Gospels produced at Korvei monastery echoes the style at Winchester. Morgan Library Vellum was the standard material for manuscripts. It was traditionally made from calf skin, although skins of other animals were also suitable.
The hides were dried, scraped, and stretched prior to use. Decorated initial from a Bible,shows a scribe holding prepared vellum sheets, in front of a skin stretched on a frame. This example, also known as the Edictum Rothari, is a historical record of the laws proclaimed by Rothari, king of the Lombards r. Throughout the Romanesque period, the Church remained the dominant patron.
By the later Middle Ages, royal and aristocratic taste came to the forefront—demand for images of leisure and romance increased. However, as the Avignon frescoes demonstrate see p. This heralds the start of an artistic revival in Germany, particularly in the fields of ivory and metalwork. In CE, he founds the first Norse settlements there. Canute becomes king of Denmark intwo years after gaining the throne of England.
In time, he will also rule Norway. The style of the illustrations is primitive, almost naive, quite unlike conventional treatments of biblical themes. Aelfric of Eynsham was one of the translators. It is frequently found in manuscripts of the Commentary on the Apocalypse by a Spanish monk, Beatus of Liebana.
Martin, Nohant-Vic, France There is an extraordinary sense of movement in this remarkable cycle of wall paintings. The campaign will eventually lead to the capture of Jerusalem, but most of the territorial gains are short-lived. This is probably because construction work on Saint-Savin was still in progress, so the artist was able to observe the masons at close quarters.
The concept was popular in scenes of the Last Judgment, but it was rarely depicted more imaginatively than here, where an angel simply locks shut the gates of Hell. Some illuminators were laymen who made their living as itinerant, professional artists, lodging at the monastery while they worked. Their names are seldom known. Often, artists worked in teams. The Mission of the Apostles on the tympanum is one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture.
With its strong contours, its stiff, linear folds, and its powerful, stylized features, it is one of the finest examples of Romanesque painting in Catalonia.
Page from the Winchester Bible c. Its chief glory is the set of decorated initials at the beginning and end of each chapter.
This example comes from the start of the Book of Exodus. Louis and Queen Blanche c. In the wake of the publicity, artists began to include this item in scenes of the Crucifixion for the first time. Paris, France This page formed the frontispiece to a calendar, which explains the unusual, scientific subject.
Paul and the Viper c. Its style has a Byzantine flavor and is strongly reminiscent of a mosaic in Palermo. Medieval images of snakes always carry overtones of Satan. He had been an enthusiastic patron of the arts and also wrote the first treatise on falconry, De arte venandi cum avibus. They were extremely popular in the Middle Ages, spawning dozens of colorful manuscripts. The camel, for example, was regarded as a symbol of prudence, because of its ability to store water, but also as an emblem of lust.
Legendary creatures, such as unicorns and basilisks, were also included. This example was produced at Acre, a Christian stronghold in the Holy Land, during the Crusader period. The local artist developed a style that combined elements of French, Byzantine, and Arab influences. The design was supervised by an Italian artist, Matteo Giovanetti, although he probably did not paint this section. The frescoes resemble contemporary tapestries. He travels with his father and uncle, both jewel merchants who have made the journey before.
Bythe bubonic plague wreaks havoc in China. Often known as the Black Death, it spreads to Europe in the late s, killing millions of victims. It is a romantic allegory, describing the dream-vision of the narrator, who courts his image of ideal beauty in the Garden of Love. The book had a slightly racy reputation, creating a sizable demand for manuscripts. More than have survived, many with lavish illustrations. Knights perform chivalrous deeds to win their lady. They came from Nijmegen, where their father was a sculptor.
The brothers did not complete the manuscript, however, because all three died inprobably from the plague. Rebels storm the Tower of London, but the young king is able to defuse the situation. It brings fresh impetus to the English in their campaigns against the French, though the successes of Joan of Arc soon reverse any gains. Here, sheepshearing and harvesting are combined with a view of the chateau at Poitiers.
The miniature includes quirky details characteristic of the work of the Limbourgs, such as a rickety wooden footbridge resting precariously on two stone blocks.
The Virgin is surrounded by various saints, among them St. George with a vanquished miniature dragon. The picture takes the form of a diptych, with two hinged panels that had a practical purpose—the panels can be closed together, protecting the surface of the painting when it is transported.
In the Evesham Psalter see p. The portrait is so small that it would be easy to miss it. In the Wilton Diptych, however, it seems as if the king has been granted a private audience with the Virgin. Nothing is known about the origins of the painting, although it is safe to assume Richard commissioned it for his own use. It takes its name from Wilton House, the home of the Earls of Pembroke, who owned the picture for about years. Italian Renaissance art blossomed fully in the 15th century, in paintings characterized by clarity, harmony, and perspective.
Northern Renaissance artists shared the drive toward naturalism of their Italian counterparts, but it was based on meticulous observation rather than on classical antiquity. In the early 16th century, artistic developments in Italy culminated in High Renaissance art, renowned for its grace and skillful complexity.
Dramatic gestures and the diagonal of the stone ridge lead the eye to the emotional core of the scene, where Mary stares in mournful intensity at her dead son. In the visual arts, the work of the Florentine master Giotto di Bondone has long been regarded as a turning point that heralded the emergence of the Renaissance. They introduced emotional drama, a naturalism then associated with ancient Roman art, and a convincing sense of three-dimensional space.
Distinctively different styles developed in 14th-century Italy, notably in the city-state of Siena through artists including Duccio and Simone Martini. It was more than a century after Giotto created his groundbreaking paintings that his true artistic heir emerged—another great Florentine master, Masaccio.
Another important change in religious sensibility was triggered by the 13th-century friar St. The combination of the classical revival and this new style of Christianity provided the foundation for a new type of art— one that not only looked more realistic, but that also inspired sympathy for the real, human qualities of Christ, rather than creating a sense of awe and mystery, which was the function of the stylized Byzantine images of God.
The Sienese painter Simone Martini works at the papal court there from about until his death. About half the inhabitants of Florence and Siena are killed by the plague, possibly including the Lorenzetti brothers see p. In central and northern Italy, commerce had enriched and empowered cities such as Florence, Siena, Venice, and Milan, which grew into self-governing city-states. It was in this political climate of proud city-states vying with each other for power and prestige that the Italian Renaissance was born.
However, the majority of paintings commissioned in the early Renaissance were Christian images. Many saw it as a bad omen, but Giotto incorporated the comet into the Adoration of the Magi fresco in the Arena Chapel.
City-states like Siena were characterized by intense civic pride campanilismoand were often at war with each other. The Christian imagery of Byzantine art was intentionally mysterious and distanced from the real world of humankind, but Giotto, Duccio, and their followers began to tell the Christian story in real, human terms.
In narrative scenes, the increasingly realistic portrayal of the physical world was paralleled by a new sense of emotional and dramatic realism. The powerful simplicity of his monumental realism is partly a function of the fresco technique, which involved working methodically and rapidly on sections of wall prepared daily with wet plaster.
The teachings of St. Francis c. Francis was also a subject for Italian Renaissance art. Pietro Cavallini was inspired by classical Roman art to develop a more naturalistic style.
Francis and Angels, detail, c. As the treacherous disciple envelops Christ in his cloak, the focus of the scene is on their contrasting faces, pressed dramatically together against a bristling backdrop of weapons. Florence, Italy c. He is thought to have trained with Cimabue. There is often dispute about the attribution of his work, but the frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua, and the Bardi and Peruzzi Chapels in S.
Croce, Florence, are certainly by his hand. He may have been involved with the fresco cycles at San Francesco in Assisi. Several altarpieces bear his signature, but may be by his workshop.
Although unsigned, the Ognissanti Madonna has a similar solemn grandeur and humanity to the Arena Chapel frescoes, and is universally considered to be by Giotto himself. Compared to the weighty naturalism of the Florentine tradition, Duccio and other Sienese artists developed a more decorative style. But both schools continued to move away from the aloofness and rigidity of Byzantine art and toward a greater naturalism, expressiveness, and humanity.
At the end of the 14th century, as communication between European courts improved, a new courtly style emerged known as International Gothic. The Virgin shrinks from the Angel Gabriel as he tells her she is to be the mother of Jesus.
Like Giotto, the influential Sienese master Duccio introduced a new sense of human feeling into his depiction of biblical stories. It forms part of his celebrated Allegory of Good and Bad Government.
They collaborated on at least one fresco cycle, but mainly worked independently. Their naturalism is closer in spirit to Giotto than to their Sienese contemporary, Simone Martini. Both may have died in the Black Death. Triumph of Death Andrea Orcagno —45 S. Croce, Florence, Italy Painted by one of an important family of Florentine artists, this fresco fragment is part of a trilogy that originally included the Last Judgment and Hell.
The powerfully dramatic scene features grotesque, vividly imagined demons. The Black Death In one of the most devastating pandemics in history, the Black Death bubonic plague swept through Europe. It had a profound effect on European history— millions died, and the population took years to recover. This polyptych multi-paneled painting is his last-known work. It exemplifies his sweet, lyrical style. Spinello probably trained in Florence— his voluminous figures and powerful outlines owe much to Giotto.
This division, known as the Great Schism, continues until Experts cannot agree on the artist's country of origin, testifying to the truly international nature of the style. Inspired by Giotto and Roman relief sculpture, the colorful narrative combines grandeur with lively incident and closely observed details. Pisanello c. With its brilliant colors and sinuous lines, it represents the pinnacle of Late Gothic art in Florence. Set in a magnificently ornate frame, the painting blends natural-looking and decorative detail, and shows the Magi dressed in splendidly luxurious garments.
The natural treatment of lighting, especially in the night scene of the predella the small images beneath the main panelis remarkable. The consummate master of the International Gothic style, Gentile da Fabriano is named after his birthplace, Fabriano, a town in the Marches region of central Italy.
Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy In his short life, Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai —28 became one of the most important artists of his time, and was a founding father of Renaissance art. It is part of a cycle painted for the Brancacci Chapel in Florence by Masaccio and his colleague Masolino di Panicale. The fresco depicts a rarely painted biblical story that Masaccio portrays with great clarity, dividing the narrative into three sections.
In the center, Christ and his disciples stand outside a town, indicated by contemporary architecture. Instead, it shows a profound debt to the paintings of Giotto from more than a century earlier. Although Piero worked mainly outside Florence, he was influenced by artistic developments there, and was inspired by artists such as Masaccio and Fra Angelico.
He funds many public building projects in Florence, earning him the title pater patriae father of his country. Florence and the Medici scholar, and collector of antiquities, he maintained relative political stability and patronized major artists. Science and art came together in one of the lasting legacies of the Renaissance—perspective.
While mathematics was the basis of linear perspective, it also underpinned the ideal of beauty that found expression in quattrocento painting. Quattrocento artists, including Paolo Uccello and Piero della Francesca, were fascinated by mathematical perspective, and Piero wrote treatises on both perspective and the science of optics.
He rules until his death inwhen his son Piero succeeds him. The Medici are expelled from Florence. Developments in architecture, science, art, philosophy, and literature thrived there as politicians, architects, artists, and scholars exchanged and explored ideas. Although technically a republic, 15th-century Florence was dominated by a single family— the Medici, who were great patrons of classical learning and the arts.
A wealthy family of bankers and merchants, they gained power through political astuteness rather than force. They ousted rival ruling families the Albizzi and the Strozzi in and remained in power until exiled inlater returning to power in His frescoes of the Holy Trinity in S. Maria Novella and in the Brancacci Chapel see pp.
These two strands are blended in the early work of Fra Angelico, and in that of Sienese artists including Sassetta. As the century progressed, a monumental sense of space and form took hold in Italian art. His Holy Trinity is one of the earliest paintings to use linear perspective systematically to create a convincing illusion that the image receded into the wall. Holy Trinity With the Virgin, St. John, and Donors, c. Taking inspiration from antique art, he was renowned for the inventiveness and emotional power of his work.
In this elegant Annunciation, the echoing poses and gestures establish a dynamic relationship between Gabriel and Mary. The Annunciation, c. Vasari noted that it brought Donatello recognition for its grace and emotional drama. Vicchio, Italy c. Behold the handmaid of the Lord Trained as a manuscript illuminator, he went on to become one of the most important artists in Florence, and also in Rome. Based mainly in Fiesole, he is most associated with his series of frescoes in the monastery of S.
In the second half of the century, artists created stunningly convincing illusions of reality, aided by the use of the oil painting technique. The grand mythologies of Botticelli and Mantegna, the anatomical studies of Antonio Pollaiuolo, and the harmonious, idealized paintings of Perugino looked forward to the High Renaissance. Parallel lines appear to converge as they move further away from the viewer and meet at a vanishing point.
Masaccio moves to Rome inleaving the Brancacci frescoes unfinished. He dies soon afterward, aged 26 or 27—so suddenly that some suspect poisoning. Masaccio collaborated on the neighboring piece, The Raising of Tabitha, but this scene—showing a slender, elegant Adam and Eve—is by Masolino alone. Almost 20 years older than Masaccio, Masolino had a more graceful, less monumental style. This scene from an altarpiece dedicated to St.
Francis blends the decorative Sienese tradition with Florentine developments in perspective and naturalism. Maria della Scala, Siena, Italy One of a remarkable series of frescoes painted for a hospital in Siena, this secular subject is unusual. In vivid—sometimes gory—detail, Bartolo depicts the sick being cared for by friars, observed by wealthy visitors. Lucy Altarpiece Domenico Veneziano c. Sienese preacher When Franciscan preacher Bernardino of Siena dies inthe Company of the Virgin commissions an altarpiece featuring Bernardino preaching outdoors to crowds.
It was once hung in the Medici Palace. Stephen and St. Paolo Uccello born Florence, Italy c. Long regarded as a curiosity, he is now one of the most popular Renaissance artists. After a brief stint as a mosaicist in Venice, Uccello spent most of his life in Florence. His idiosyncratic work combines the decorative appeal of the International Gothic tradition with enthusiastic displays of mathematical perspective.
Portrait of a Lady Alesso Baldovinetti c. Donatello dies The Florentine sculptor Donatello Donato di Niccolothe greatest sculptor and the most influential artist of the time—in any medium —dies in Florence on December 13, He remains in service to the Gonzaga family for the rest of his life.
Anne Fra Filippo Lippi c. Lippi influenced Botticelli, who was probably a pupil. He was among the first Renaissance artists to use the tondo circular format. His oil painting technique influences fellow artists, such as Piero della Francesca. Now he ranks as one of the greatest of all quattrocento artists, admired for the clarity and solemn grandeur of his works, which are underpinned by his profound understanding of perspective, geometry, and harmonious proportion.
Jerome in His Study Antonello da Messina c. His early years are obscure, but he worked in Florence before making his reputation painting frescoes for the Sistine Chapel in On December 10 Paolo Uccello dies in Florence. Giuliano is stabbed to death, Lorenzo wounded.
Botticelli paints frescoes of the hanged conspirators. The Martyrdom of St. In this powerful collaborative work, the muscular figures shown from a variety of viewpoints are probably by Antonio, who was a gifted sculptor and was fascinated by anatomy—he even dissected corpses. Piero was a pioneer of landscape, and probably painted the panoramic background, based on the Arno valley around Florence. John, St. Jerome, and St. Mary Magdalene This unusual Annunciation shows how closely politics, religion, and art were linked in 15th-century Italy.
Pietro Perugino c. She commissioned leading artists, including Mantegna and Perugino, to provide allegorical paintings for her studiolo in the Ducal Palace in Mantua.
This new type of painting was highly valued in cultured Renaissance circles: like a painted allegorical poem, it uses complex symbolism to bring together classical and Renaissance ideas about love, beauty, and nature. Sixtus gestures the Virgin forward as she appears on clouds through parted curtains, while St. Barbara glances down at two winged putti who gaze up at the heavenly scene. It was a period dominated by three giants of Italian art—Leonardo —Michelangelo —and Raphael — According to the artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari, writing in his Lives of the Artists inthis period represented the pinnacle of artistic achievement.
Many of the key works of the High Renaissance were frescoes, but artists also exploited the particular qualities of oil paint to achieve the subtle, softening effects that were characteristic of the period. A succession of popes set about restoring Rome to its former, ancient glory. The area around the Vatican and St.
InPope Sixtus IV ordered the rebuilding of an old chapel to take on a new ceremonial role—it became the Sistine Chapel. This brought countless commissions for artists, who decorated the new sites.
These examples of antique art were admired by High Renaissance artists and others, including Pope Julius II, who founded the Belvedere collection of sculpture. Of all the popes, Julius II r. Among his many commissions were the rebuilding of St. Fueled partly by religious sectarianism, they raped, tortured, and slaughtered thousands of inhabitants. The golden age of the High Renaissance came to a sudden, bloody end. In his reign, he commissions many major artistic works. In the same year, the foundation stone is laid for the new St.
Its position as the focus of artistic innovation waned, and Rome took center stage. With its Christian and classical heritage, the city attracted artists, architects, and scholars from across Europe.
But in the 15th century, after Rome had become the permanent papal base Pope Alexander VI declares a Jubilee year. Inhabitants are murdered and art treasures looted. Hard-edged naturalism was softened and replaced by an emphasis on grace and subtlety expressed through smooth transitions of form and color. It shows the Virgin and Child with St.
John and an angel in a remote, cavelike setting, with a strange rocky landscape receding into a pale, bluish haze in the far distance darkened varnish has obscured the original colors. The painting is imbued with a lyrical air of mystery.
The illegitimate son of a notary and a peasant girl, he was apprenticed to the sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence, then settled in Milan in He researched every aspect of light and color. Pictorial grace was central to High Renaissance style.
Head of a Woman, c. Its effects were imitated by many artists including Dutch 15thcentury painter Hans Memling. Passion of Christ, detail, c. Galleria Depictions of the natural world evolved during the Renaissance. Primavera, detail, c. The High Renaissance is usually dated from around until around His innovative Virgin of the Rocks see pp. Artistic giants Inartists line up to admire a cartoon—a full-size preparatory drawing—by Leonardo in Florence.
Michelangelo begins his huge sculpture of David, the largest freestanding sculpture since ancient times. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publishers.
Includes bibliographical references and index. FolkloreWest U. Popular cultureWest U. LegendsWest U. S53 dc21 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Manufactured in the United States of America. G M Gallatin Writers, Inc. This is the West, sir. When the legend the New so that readers can distinguish becomes fact, we print the legend.
A them from historical fact. Stod- world. The grief over the passing of these dard, of course, did not actually kill the singing cowboy heroes reminds us force- notorious gunman, but in the film the fully that the West has been Americas facts of history become less important most potent source of myth and legend than the legend that gives rise to his since the days of the forty-niners, George celebrity and political career. Because everyone from ends now reach a worldwide audience.
Recognizing this re- myth and imagery. Western images serve ality, this encyclopedia focuses not on as shorthand symbols of patriotism, de- historical events but rather on the mocracy, rugged individualism, and a plethora of legendary, mythical images, host of other virtues.
Thus broadly held events, people, and places associated with but faulty assumptions about the na- the Old West and the New. This book tions historical past shape real events traces myths through folk legends, art, lit- and lead to real consequences.
Myth can erature, and popular culture. For exam- even influence public policy, just as leg- ple, the discussion of Billy the Kid only end shaped the career of the fictional briefly sketches the facts of his life as we Ransom Stoddard.
The overarching goal know them. Rather, it concentrates on the of this book is to identify, describe, and many myths and depictions that come analyze many myths of the Old West and down to us through novels and films. What is included in this encyclopedia? But mythi- www. This source tells us suitable to myth: legendary, so we that myth, from the Greek mythos, is a examine the lives of real people, from traditional story of ostensibly historical Cody to Autry, flesh-and-blood humans, events that serves to unfold part of the whose careers catapulted them into the world view of a people or explain a prac- realm of the legendary.
The Lore, a term dating from before the Mythical West includes many such tales, twelfth century, consists of traditional such as the story explaining the signifi- knowledge or belief. Legend, a word cance of the white buffalo and the story dating from the fourteenth century, can of Aztln, mythical southwestern home- be 1 a story coming down from the land of the Aztecs.
A myth may also be a past; especially: one popularly regarded popular belief or tradition that has as historical although not verifiable; 2 grown up around something or some- a body of such stories; 3 a popular one; especially: one embodying the ideals myth of recent origin; or 4 a person or and institutions of a society or segment thing that inspires legends Merriam- of society.
The West is rife with such Websters Collegiate Dictionary, on-line. Finally, a myth might be a person to movies to television. The subjects of jects that most readers would not have many of the entries in The Mythical West, encountered before. To paraphrase an like Pecos Bill and Bigfoot, fit this last old automobile ad, This is not your fa- category. I also tried to ex- The subjects of other entries are tend coverage in all directions to include mythical a word dating in English the wondrous diversity that is the Amer- from because they are based on ican West.
See also Rafaela G. Collegiate Dictionary, on-line. You will Eating Johnson, an actual historical fig- learn about Johnny Kaw, a personage urethe mountain man John Johnson probably not well known outside Kansas. Usually, mythical means ex- swallows now return to the famous Cali- isting only in the imagination: fictitious, fornia mission of San Juan Capistrano.
As a final criterion for inclusion, I used not duplicated that coverage here. For the Internet. This ubiquitous network information on Indian history, legend, encompasses an amazing range of sub- and lore, see these excellent books: Na- jects. In deciding whether to include a tive Americans: An Encyclopedia of His- topic, I checked to see how many Inter- tory, Culture, and People ; Encyclo- net sites treated the subject and how pedia of Native American Shamanism: profoundly they treated it.
This seemed Sacred Ceremonies of North America to me to be a good indicator of whether ; Native American Literatures: An the topic had worked its way into Ameri- Encyclopedia of Works, Characters, Au- can or even world popular culture.
Likewise Cattle Kate has evolved Costume ; Encyclopedia of Ameri- from an intriguing historical figure into a can Indian Wars, ; En- major clothing company. I am fully prepared to defend the of the American Indian, 7th ed. Internet as a useful, if imperfect, measure The Mythical West treats images and of cultural salience. Sorry, Minnesota and Paul In keeping my focus clearly on Bunyan, you didnt make the cut. The the West, I have also avoided overlap Canadian West has generated a wealth of with Jan Harold Brunvands Encyclopedia fascinating frontier mythology, but limi- of Urban Legends Unlike most Banff, Alberta, Canada: Altitude Publish- bloodless factoid encyclopedias that ing, No sin- strongly believe should have been in- gle book can pretend to be comprehen- cluded?
Make your case! E-mail a subject sive, but I have tried to be as inclusive as summary and source information to me space permits, within the limits noted at Slatta ncsu. Thrapps En- their data from manuscript and printed cyclopedia of Frontier Biography Lincoln: documents, such as diaries, letters, University of Nebraska Press,and speeches, and myriad government publi- Robert J.
Nashs wonderful Encyclopedia cations. For topics on the ture, oral traditions, and popular media. I also used a mation that is up-to-date, broad-ranging, variety of search engines, including Ink- and often humorous.
By using both his- tomi, Snap, Google, and Britannica. The Mythical West is background on entries relating to cow- alive, well, changing, and growing. I edited by Howard R. Lamar New Haven. CT: Yale University Press, I have ments on Owen Wisters visits to Win- taken pains to complement, not overlap, throp and the Methow Valley of Washing- existing reference works on the Ameri- ton State.
A special thanks to Guy Louis can West. I also offer a to fruition. I had excellent research and heartfelt gracias to Danelle Crowley, fel- writing assistance from many talented low Peace Corps alum and genuine students at North Carolina State Univer- Texan, for taking me to two of the Lone sity: Julie J.
Anders, P. Oettinger, Kaleb J. Redden, and Big Earls Barbecue in Kerrville. Michael L. Without the many fruits of their Laughlin, and Z. Entries written by research labors, I would not have had these contributors carry their bylines. The irrepressible Joe Blyth, friend and ex-student, provided constant reminders Richard W. Slatta Slatta Album). Barbara S. The great rivers of the West, like the Columbia, well served Native Americans, providing food and transportation, long before the arrival of Europeans.
The towering mountain ranges of the West served as barriers to travel and settlement. But the mountains also provided habitat for beaver and other animals, giving rise to famous mountain men, like John Colter and Jim Beckwourth, of the nineteenth century. European exploration and settlement of the Southwest began with the Spanish in the sixteenth century.
Architecture, food, language, and culture in the West still exhibit a strong Spanish flavor. Immense herds of buffalo provided sustenance and shaped the way of life for Native American plains cultures. However, by the s and s, cowboys and longhorn cattle had replaced the vast bison herds throughout the West. Only the foresight of a few westerners saved the species from extinction.
Cattle ranchers built great empires and fortunes, and these cattle barons built accordingly, as evidenced by the Littlefield House in Austin, Texas. The cowboy culture gave rise to many icons of the West, including blue jeans, chaps, boots, and the famed Stetson hat. Donning such garments allows anyone to participate in the magic of the mythical West. Economic booms, spurred by ranching, railroads, logging, mining, and farming, gave way to busts, leaving ghost towns and deserted ranches throughout the region.
During the twentieth century, nostalgia for the Old West revealed itself in novels, films, radio, and television. B-western cowboy stars, such as Lash Larue, shown here in a photo, thrilled audiences as they galloped across the silver screen.
Much has changed in the West, but not the enchanting grandeur of its natural beauty. People continue to marvel at its rugged, foreboding deserts and mountains. And, like the pioneers of old, people continue to explore its vast wilderness areas.
The mythical West lives on! With Gun- smoke, The Rifleman, Maverick, Bonanza, and other shows being viewed by mil- lions of boys, toy companies realized the Aces And Eights vast market potential of western-themed action figures.
Although action figures See Dead Mans Hand have changed drastically in format, form, and style over the decades, one thing has remained: the popularity of the western theme. Action Figures The translation of the western mythos into playthings corresponded nicely with Introduction childrens play habits. Most important to In Hasbro coined the term action children are the white hats, or good figure to describe its new line of military guys.
These characters will hopefully figures, G. Hasbro knew that to be the ones children relate to; through market what was essentially a doll to them children can place themselves in boys and their parentsit needed a the action.
Action figure implied a toy Next, children need black hats, or that little boys could use in active ways, bad guys. Villains provide the conflict, something far more manly than simply the evil that must be overcome and de- dressing up a doll. The line was a huge feated. Finally come the secondary char- hit, and it didnt take long for Americas acters: henchmen on the side of evil or. Just as in the western movies and TV shows that children watch, these sec- ondary characters can be injured, kid- napped, and rescued and can serve as bit actors in the stories they play out.
White Hats in the Sandbox From the very beginning, toy companies knew the qualities required of their good guys in any action-figure line: bravery, integrity, courage, strength, humility, and other laudable traits.
But the age of licensing well- giving his life to defend the West from known characters from shows was still the heathen Indianstuck with his ac- years off. Instead, toy companies, like tion figure over the decades. Marx, developed western action-figure Why did Custer remain such a popu- lines based predominately on fictional lar choice? Certainly there were plenty characters they themselves created. A few figures did occasionally peared in Marxs first line and has been get made of these characters.
But none in very many action-figure lines since: has the distinction of being represented Gen. George Armstrong Custer starred as as a plastic icon so many times. Custer a white hat in the very first western- even showed up when he made little themed line of figures, Marxs Best of the sense in context, for example, in the Leg- West series. Only two other real-life char- ends of the Lone Ranger line of the early actersDaniel Boone and Geronimo s.
Custer has since been pro- dom, combined with his easily recog- duced dozens of times, by many different nized appearance, make him an ideal companies in many different styles, but choice for an action-figure white hat.
His one thing has remained the same: hes mythos represents everything heroic always a good guy. His long, flowing blond hair, dis- led to believe by our grade school his- tinct facial hair, and military uniform al- tory teachers.
Sure, they found some straightforward candidatesBilly the Kid and Jesse James, the most com- mon. The villain of the Alamo, Santa Anna, was even produced once. In gen- eral, however, the evil characters were ei- ther licensed characters from a movie or show, such as Butch Cavendish from The Lone Ranger, or a generic baddie devel- oped from an accepted concept of a true General Custer. He stood out as a mar- western villain. Even during Other famous real-life western heroes the s, Native characters, like Tonto, did make it into plastic.
Wild Bill Hickok, were marketed as friends of the cowboys. Of course, this subtlety Jim Bowie, and others have all been did not necessarily translate into play made into toys for children. All were por- style. I recall many kids who used Native trayed as the white hats. By the late s, licensing characters Companies strongly relied on the color from movies and television shows be- black to create their villains.
Even when came the de facto standard. Sam Cobra, for example, the only Adams, How the West Was Won, and character in the large Best of the West Zorro became the norm, while lines set who was marketed as purely bad, was based on generic characters slowly disap- dressed, quite nattily, all in black, com- peared.
Still, even today the most re- plete with all-black accessories. Rather, urally evil in toy form as well. Butch they were often thieves, and gambling Cavendish, the nemesis of the Lone was one of their usual pastimes. The Ranger, is possibly the best example. Specific play sets de- poker player. Probably for fear of offend- veloped with Butch Cavendish in mind ing parents, the manufacturers down- almost always involved robbery as the played the idea that these men were real crime. These figures represented a less- killers.
A no-good, cheating gambler, he Mexican Outlaw, scheming enemy of the came with many deceitful accessories. A Lone Ranger. Deceitfulness, either in special knife could be hidden in his stealing or while playing cards, was the sleeve, a derringer could be hidden in his predominate trait of the western bad guy belt buckle, and another could be cached action figure.
No ideal western villain would be complete without his bundle of The Portrayal of dynamite to blow up the banks safe. Co- Western Minorities bra was an oddity, though, being mar- The American West had many minority keted very clearly as a bad guy. Most oth- members, many of them not as much in ers, even Jesse James and Billy the Kid, the minority as traditional depictions were simply sold as one more player in would have us think.
Native Americans, little Bobbys dugout of characters, allow- African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, ing the child to decide the role they and women of all nationalities played would play. Surprisingly, all have been repre- shows became the norm, those charac- sented in the toy box as well, and not just as villains. As noted earlier, although Indians were present in almost every western line produced, only rarely did they ap- pear as bad.
In general, they served as sidekicks, buddies, compadres. Any neg- ative elements in their personas were usually presented as the result of a mis- understanding, as in the case of Red Sleeves, part of the Lone Ranger series, billed as the noble foe, the fierce Apache. Native American female figures, in stark contrast to their Caucasian counterparts, did not appear as armed warriors.
It may seem surprising at first to see such diversity in toys, particularly when it was clearly not intended to broaden the market audience. Toy companies knew that although children were their market, parents held the purse strings. If feared and less understood than Red little Johnny pointed out an action figure Sleeves, the Indian who rode alone. A sale would be lost.
Even during the s and 70s, Distinctly different clothes, hairstyles, toy companies largely avoided stereotyp- and skin colors helped toy manufactur- ing minorities.
During the last 40 years, there Ready Gang, produced by Marx in the have only been a handful of black west- late s. The three characters included ern figures available, mostly fictional. This line is today can cowboys and perhaps the model for very sought-after by collectors, not only Deadwood Dick. Real-life characters, such as The mythos of the American West lends Calamity Jane, Belle Starr, and Annie itself perfectly to the fantasy world of ac- Oakley, served as action figures, and tion figures.
In every line, good guys and companies created many other fictional bad Rulin Like A Tyrant - Bunker 66 - Screaming Rock Believers (File are necessary for childhood characters as well. Even if girls had little role playing. With the well-known myths interest in them Barbie provided fierce of characters such as General Custer, competitionthe female figures pro- Billy the Kid, and Geronimo, some real- vided damsels in distress for little boys life western people fit the archetypal to rescue.
The companies should be roles perfectly. West, where the lines between good guy tors play the parts of mountain men, sol- and bad guy could be extremely blurred, diers, dance hall girls and prostituteshas at times made it difficult to place and gunfighters, thereby vicariously en- people in clear-cut roles.
Manufacturers joying life in the Old West. Among the didnt try to pigeon-hole their charac- more colorful, noisy, and action-filled re- ters; they simply produced a variety and creations are action-shooting contests let the kids sort it out. Mike Venturino describes one tion figures that we see the bare mythos such event: of the American West. Good guys are honest, brave, and trustworthy. Bad guys In a blur of movement, the cowboy are liars, gamblers, cheats, and thieves.
As he racy, but this mythos is so ingrained in hammers away, the bad guys begin to our society that we accept it as a given fall. The first six-gun empties, and the even in the toys we buy our children. But even Western toys produced by foreign com- when that one is spent, hes not out of panies in foreign lands carry these same danger. He grabs a shotgun off a nearby ideals.
The American West has been table and blasts his way toward the exit, marketed and sold to the entire world in firing so rapidly that the guns side-by- this fashion through TV, movies, books, side barrels sound nearly as one. When and even our own history classes. For he finally clears the room and kicks open some, these deeply rooted stereotypes the double swinging doors, theres more may seem outdated or even dangerous, trouble outside: Another band of outlaws but for most little kids and big kids alike, lines the street.
To make matters worse, its just about playing cowboys and hes out of ammo. Amid a jangle of spurs Indians. Whisking it clear of the scab- See also Butch Cassidy and the Sundance bard, he levers in the first round and lets Kid; Earp Brothers; Lone Ranger fly, swinging the gun from side to side with incredible speed and accuracy. At References last, he squeezes off his final shot. Breathing hard, he waits for the dust to atomgroup. His heart sinks. One of the bad guys is still standing.
Venturino Action shooters generally dress the Action Shooting part, wearing period cowboy costumes, handlebar mustaches, and other sartorial Each year, a host of reenactors dress up touches. They might be firing authentic, in period costumes to re-create historical historical weapons or recent-vintage re- eras, battles, and other events.
Reenac- productions. A beings. The Single Action Shooting Soci- few shooters, however, are more savvy. An estimated 50, peo- ing. He details dress, mannerisms, ple, probably more than 75 percent of weapons, aliases, and other critical parts them men, participate in these contests of re-creating the persona of an Old West worldwide.
Even countries without a his- gunslinger. However, he also reminds tory of Wild West violence enjoy the ac- practitioners that for virtually every Old tion. That was what Zealands premier cowboy action shoot- the public wanted to believe. The governing organizations specify Album), western films are rife with ref- the types of firearms permitted.
Cowboy erences to the gunplay and mayhem that action shooters must fire single-action characterized the mythical West. Peggy revolvers that require cocking the ham- Thompson and Saeko Usukawa have mer manually before each shot. The de- gathered more than pages of great sign of rifles and carbines must predate western film quotes into Tall in the Sad- Red River expresses the usual Colts famous single-action Army Re- worshipful attitude toward guns ex- volver, The Peacemaker, is the hand- pressed in westerns: You know, there gun of choice.
The gun has undergone are only two things more beautiful than only minor changes since its intro- a good gun: a Swiss watch or a woman duction for the U. Todays from anywhere. Well, just about the tion shooters.
Contest design shows great creativity Gambling and drinking and killing. They might take aim bit of pop philosophy to his gang: Faith from atop stagecoaches, around obsta- can move mountains.
But it cant beat a cles, or running or rolling. Both speed faster draw. As a counterpoint, feisty bar and accuracy count, as in an authentic owner Vienna Joan Crawford warns in Old West shoot-out.
Johnny Guitar that boys who play Many action shooters assume that with guns have be ready to die like men. An exchange in The Last of the Fast Guns more representative of the Old West injects another healthy dose of re- than is the stereotypical glint-eyed, alism to movie fiction: You wanted to mano-a-mano gunfight.
Nobody wins in a gunfight, Portland, Oregon. ExSecretary of the In- replies Ellison. Udall moderated the dis- The most famous parody of action cussion.
Quoting the late Arizona histo- shooting and Old West role playing came rian Bert Fireman, Udall reaffirmed that in the campy science fiction film the West was not won by guns. It was Westworld, which provides a delightful, won by shovels and sweat How the dark, bizarre story of action shooting West Got Wild Historian Robert R.
Michael Crichton wrote and Dykstra agreed that the uniquely savage directed the film, set in a high-tech and homicide-ravaged Old West is a con- theme park of the future. However, owing to tourist venues. Bellesiles obliging robots begin killing the visitors. Bellesiles lose the shoot-out. The fact little to do with the realities of the Old that such gunfights were incredibly rare West. Blazing gunfights rarely happened. Historical reality control laws.
The famous duels, with notwithstanding, legions of action shoot- gunslingers facing each other down on ers continue to replicate movie fiction, Main Street, are much more a product of while imagining that they are partaking filmmakers than of history.
The notori- of western fact. If action shooting, however, does not blunt someone needed killing, ambush or back the enthusiasm, as shooters expend an shooting, rather than face-to-fact com- estimated 24 million rounds of ammuni- bat, generally prevailed.
In this sense, tion per year. Parents, in particular, An only child, Adams was perhaps more feared that children might become en- than a little spoiled; his formal schooling amored of the glorification of quick- ended in his early teens as he chafed un- draw violence and perhaps act on those der the regimentation of school.
His par- impulses. He enjoyed the piano and See also Wister, Owen, and Winthrop, considered music as a career. In he Washington visited Yosemite Valley and took his first landscape photographs.
Roundtable discus- beauty on film. He studied photography, sion. Western Historical Quarterly 31, no. Autumn : He joined the Sierra Club in html. Tall until San Francisco: Chronicle Books, Venturino, Mike. Slingin Lead. Popular Me- first portfolio, appeared in The chanicsno.
They devoted themselves to excel- lence at all elements of photography, from composition and lighting to careful Adams, Ansel exposure and exquisite printmaking. He also codified his meticulous approach to exposure, processing, and printing into what he called the zone system. He labored as a commer- San Francisco. Adams extended his range from Cali- ness of the need for conservation around fornia across the West.
On his first trip to the world. In later years, he gave up the the Southwest, inhe wrote from rigors of traipsing through the wilder- Santa Fe, New Mexico, to his wife that ness he so loved and settled in Carmel, Rulin Like A Tyrant - Bunker 66 - Screaming Rock Believers (File photographic material is simply im- California.
In he received the Presi- mensebeyond any imagination. I would dential Medal of Freedom from Jimmy not be in the least surprised were our Carter, on the recommendation of Ger- destiny to establish us here Adams ald Ford.
The citation reads: with Alinder He published not only portfolios of his work but also in- At one with the power of the American structional guides to photography. Items 51 to of on page 2 of 9. People also bought Feel It Out EP 12". Manucci's Mistress. Review: In addition to his work as one half of Mista Men, London via Doncaster producer Ryan Aitchison has been making solo moves under his Mella Dee guise these past few years with appearances in all the right places think Wolf Music, Shabby Doll and Sccucci Manucci.
In fact Mella Dee's featured on two of the latter label's releases so it's little surprise to find the producer popping up on the affiliated Manucci's Mistress operation.
The Feel It Out EP sits snugly between house, techno and bass music with the lead cut featuring a rather vicious sub bass line and some superb vocal edits, whilst "Raptor" opts for a moodier UKG meets snapping techno flex.
Do check the smudged out bass refix from Will Berridge too. For The People 12". Holding Hands Submerged. Review: For Holding Hands chief Desert Sound Colony, dark, eyes down, bass heavy grooves are his first love when it comes to electronic music. He created a label with a slightly deeper angle to accommodate this sort of thing named Holding Hands Submerged. Played by: Mark Forshaw.
Do 4 Me 12". Lobster Boy. Oak Tones 12". International Extraterrestrial. XL Chapter VI limited gatefold 2xLP comes in different coloured sleeves, we cannot guarantee which one you will receive.
This 10 track compilation heralds XL's increased involvement, featuring tracks from these aforementioned artists plus contributions from deep tech hopeful Hugo Massien, Kaytranda, London house duo Homepark, and Denver grime act GILA. Played by: Juno Recommends Bass. Khatar Sayeb 12". Review: Can you imagine a more perfect mix - the innately soulful yet age-worn vocals of American singer Bobby Womack and the effervescent and vital bad-boy house of Julio Bashmore?
XL really nailed it with this remix release of the highlight from Womack's latest album, with the Bristolian house god spending a good couple of minutes teasing the track in as vocals are looped and basslines drill into your head, before unleashing a classy and sunny beat for full orgasmic revelry. Exemen do a great job with the tune too on their rerub - geared up for dance floor panic with a dubby 2-step remake. Review: Ninja Tune's album schedule this year is shaping up to be it's most intriguing for some years, with this debut LP from Illum Sphere arriving after that Actress LP, a Junglist set from Lee Bannon and perhaps most surprisingly, there is a new LP from Kelis yes that Kelis due on the label.
Part of Manchester's famed Hoya:Hoya collective, former RBMA academy graduate Illum Sphere has been producing his uniquely skewed brand of bass-fuelled experimental dance music since for a number of labels, includingBrownswood and Tectonic, with last year's Birthday single on Young Turks providing his most high profile release until this debut album.
Entitled Ghosts Of Then And Now, the thirteen track set is heavily cinematic in the way it unfurls and feels like IIlum Sphere was trying to craft a real album as opposed to a bunch of tracks. Tnght LP. Review: Making their debut on Warp, Hudson Mohawke and Lunice proudly cross their beams to rain down a sick and slick kind of future-crunk, aptly demonstrated in in the introductory nature of bass-rich teaser "Top Floor" with its juke leanings and menacing posture.
There's a detuned nature to the recognisable bleeps and wails on offer here while the beats remain crunchy and steadfast. Satin Panthers LP. Glass Swords gatefold 2xLP. Shrines CD. Review: The original enfant terrible of the bass music world marks his second long player for 4AD with a sprawling opus of more than 30 skits and skirmishes daubed in his trademark colourful sonic scrawl. There is plenty here that reminds you of the early days of the producer's emergence when dubstep was a younger beast, from the spacious "Horrid" to the measured arpeggios of "Pray For Me", but you'll also find more intricate musings such as the dynamic and dramatic "Memories".
At any given turn, you'll find yourself surprised, lurched from a serene mood into a manic one, only to be tempered again. There's a staggering range of ideas and styles to comprehend here, but would you want it any other way from one of electronic music's most outspoken upstarts? Hot Raw Sex 12". Odds Against Us 12". Ostgut Ton Germany. Finally "Rhythm Ritual" takes us back to with a bright bashy technoid twist on the ever-evolving dubstep schematics.
It seems like the SBTRKT sound has developed into a more subtle and finessed one in the period since Jerome issued his debut, self titled album. The result is a sophisticated, vibrant and thoroughly mature electronic pop album blessed with an impressive array of guest vocalists Jessie Ware, Andrew Ashong, Sampha and Ezra Koenig all feature. This, though, is the British singer, songwriter and producer's debut album, and it's something of an understated gem. The beats are inventive, the electronics crisp, the samples carefully chosen, and the musical touches pitched just right.
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