The early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently.
Some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, the second generation in Sweden being led by Dissection Abruptum  Marduk   and Nifelheim. Initially a synonym for "Satanic metal",  black metal has often sparked controversy, due to the actions and ideologies associated with the genre.
Some artists express misanthropic views, and others advocating various forms of extreme anti-Christian sentimentSatanismor ethnic paganism. In the s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church burnings and murders. There is also a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Although contemporary black metal typically refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has traditionally been applied to bands with widely differing sounds, such as Death SSMercyful FateMayhemBlasphemy  and the Greek and Finnish bands that emerged around the same time as the Norwegian scene.
Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists usually favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones and heavy distortion. The tritoneor flat-fifth, is often used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal.
It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar,  or for it to homophonically follow the low-pitched riffs of the guitar. While electronic keyboards are not a standard instrument, some bands, like Dimmu Borgiruse keyboards "in the background" or as "proper instruments" for creating atmosphere. The drumming is usually fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach beats per minute.
These fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost Kjetil-Vidar Haraldstad and Hellhammer Jan Axel Blomberg.
Black metal songs often stray from conventional song structure and often lack clear verse-chorus sections. Instead, many black metal songs contain lengthy and repetitive instrumental sections. The Greek style—established by Rotting ChristNecromantia and Varathron  —has more traditional heavy metal  and death metal  traits than Norwegian black metal.
Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include techniques such as shrieking, screaming, and snarling,   a vocal style influenced by Quorthon of Bathory.
Black metal lyrics typically attack Christianity and the other institutional religions,  often using apocalyptic language. Satanic lyrics are common,  and many see them as essential to black metal. For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons; deadly serious attempts to unite the true believers".
Many bands write about the mythology and folklore  of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions. A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few e. Arckanum and early Ulver have lyrics in archaic languages. Some doom metal -influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, nihilism, introspection, self-harm and suicide.
Many bands choose not to play live. Sincerity, authenticity and extremity are valued above all else". Bands such as MayhemGorgorothand Watain are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood.
Black metal artists often appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands  and inverted crosses and inverted pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance. The imagery of black metal reflects its lyrics and ideology.
Black metal album covers are typically dark and tend to be atmospheric or provocative; some feature natural or fantasy landscapes for example Burzum 's Filosofem and Emperor's In the Nightside Eclipse while others are violent, sexually transgressive, sacrilegious, or iconoclastic for example Marduk 's Fuck Me Jesus and Dimmu Borgir 's In Sorte Diaboli.
The earliest black metal artists had very limited resources, which meant that recordings would often be done in homes or basements,  giving their recordings a distinctive "lo-fi" quality. However, even when success allowed access to professional studios, many artists instead chose to continue making lo-fi recordings. Many have claimed that black metal was originally intended only for those who were part of the scene and not for a wider audience. The conventional history of black metal is that pioneers like VenomBathory and Hellhammer were part of a "first wave", and that a "second wave" was begun by the early Norwegian scene, especially by Mayhem vocalist Dead;  Mayhem's leader, Euronymous, who founded the Norwegian scene after Dead's suicide;  and Darkthrone's album A Blaze in the Northern Sky.
Occult and Satanic lyrical themes were present in the music of heavy metal and rock bands of the late s and early s such as Black Sabbath and Coven.
Warrior of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost credited English punk group Discharge as "a revolution, much like Venom", saying, "When I heard the first two Discharge records, I was blown away.
I was just starting to play an instrument and I had no idea you could go so far. The use of corpse paint in the black metal imagery was mainly influenced by the American s rock band Kiss. The first wave of black metal refers to bands during the s who influenced the black metal sound and formed a prototype for the genre. By today's musical standards, their sound is closer to speed metal or thrash metal. The term "black metal" was coined by the English band Venom with their second album Black Metal Although generally deemed speed metal or thrash metal rather than black metal,  the album's lyrics and imagery focused more on anti-Christian and Satanic themes than any before it.
Their music was fast, unpolished in production and with raspy or grunted vocals. Venom's members also adopted pseudonyms, a practice that would become widespread among black metal musicians.
Another major influence on black metal was the Swedish band Bathory. The band, led by Thomas Forsberg a. Quorthoncreated "the blueprint for Scandinavian black metal". With Blood Fire Death and the two following albums, Bathory pioneered the style that would become known as Viking metal. Hellhammerfrom Switzerland, "made truly raw and brutal music"  with Satanic lyrics, and became an important influence on later black metal;  "Their simple yet effective riffs and fast guitar sound were groundbreaking, anticipating the later trademark sound of early Swedish death metal".
The lyrics also became more personal, with topics about inner feelings and majestic stories. But for a couple of years, Celtic Frost was one of the world's most extreme and original metal bands, with a huge impact on the mids black metal scene". The Danish band Mercyful Fate influenced the Norwegian scene with their imagery and lyrics. Other early black metal bands include Sabbat formed in Japan Parabellum formed in Colombia Salem formed in Israel and Mortuary Drape formed in Italy.
Their debut album, Scorn Defeatbecame "a cult classic in the black metal world". In andNorthern European metal acts began to release music influenced by these bands or the older ones from the first wave. The Norwegian band Mayhem's concert in Leipzig with Eminenz and Manos inlater released as Live in Leipzigwas said to have had a strong influence on the East German scene  and is even called the unofficial beginning of German black metal.
The second wave of black metal began in the early s and was spearheaded by the Norwegian black metal scene. During —a number of Norwegian artists began performing and releasing a new kind of black metal music; this included MayhemDarkthroneBurzumImmortalEmperorSatyriconEnslavedThornsand Gorgoroth.
They developed the style of their s forebears into a distinct genre. The wearing of corpse paint became standard, and was a way for many black metal artists to distinguish themselves from other metal bands of the era. Artists were bitterly opposed to Christianity and presented themselves as misanthropic Devil worshippers who wanted to spread terror, hatred and evil. Ihsahn of Emperor said that they sought to "create fear among people"  and "be in opposition to society".
On 8 AprilMayhem vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin who called himself "Dead" died by suicide while alone in a house shared by the band. Before going onstage he went to great lengths to make himself look like a corpse and would cut his arms while singing. Dead's suicide note began with "Excuse all the blood", and apologized for firing the weapon indoors.
One of these photographs was later used as the cover of a bootleg live album, Dawn of the Black Hearts. Euronymous made necklaces with bits of Dead's skull and gave some to musicians he deemed worthy. I think it Gang War - Rabid Dogs (3) - Rabid Dogs (CD Dead's suicide that really changed the scene". It quickly became the focal point of Norway's emerging black metal scene and a meeting place for many of its musicians; especially the members of Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Thorns.
With the rising popularity of his band and others like it, the underground success of Euronymous's label is often credited for encouraging other record labels, who had previously shunned black metal acts, to then reconsider and release their material.
Inmembers of the Norwegian black metal scene began a wave of arson attacks on Christian churches. Bythere had been at least 50 such attacks in Norway. The first to be burnt down was Norway's Fantoft stave church. Police believe Varg Vikernes of Burzum was responsible. Members of the Swedish scene started to burn churches in Those convicted for church burnings showed no remorse and described their actions as a symbolic "retaliation" against Christianity in Norway.
Many, such as Infernus and Gaahl of Gorgoroth, continue to praise the church burnings, with the latter saying "there should have been more of them, and there will be more of them".
Manheim claimed that many arsons were "just people trying to gain acceptance" within the black metal scene. Which is a very good beginning, of course".
In earlyanimosity arose between Euronymous and Vikernes. When they arrived a confrontation began and Vikernes stabbed Euronymous to death. His body was found outside the apartment with 23 cut wounds—two to the head, five to the neck, and sixteen to the back.
It has been speculated that the murder was the result of either a power struggle, a financial dispute over Burzum records or an attempt at outdoing a stabbing in Lillehammer the year before by Faust. He says that Euronymous had plotted to stun him with an electroshock weapontie him up and torture him to death while videotaping the event.
Vikernes was arrested on 19 Augustin Bergen. Some of them confessed to their crimes and implicated others. In MayVikernes was sentenced to 21 years in prison Norway's maximum penalty for the murder of Euronymous, the arson of four churches, and for possession of kg of explosives. However, he only confessed to the latter.
Two churches were burnt the day he was sentenced, "presumably as a statement of symbolic support". Blackthorn was sentenced to eight years in prison for being an accomplice to the murder. I put word out that I was re-recording the bass parts.
But I never Album). He was re-arrested shortly after while driving a stolen car with various weapons. Black metal scenes also emerged on the European mainland during the early s, inspired by the Norwegian scene or the older bands, or both. In Poland, a scene was spearheaded by Graveland and Behemoth. In Belgium, there were acts such as Ancient Rites and Enthroned.
Black Funeral, from Houstonformed inwas associated with black magic and Satanism. The band then abandoned black metal for gothic metal,  becoming one of the most successful extreme metal bands to date. John Serba of AllMusic commented that their first album "made waves in the early black metal scene, putting Cradle of Filth on the tips of metalheads' tongues, whether in praise of the band's brazen attempts to break the black metal mold or in derision for its 'commercialization' of an underground phenomenon that was proud of its grimy heritage".
When asked if he considers Cradle of Filth a black metal band, vocalist Dani Filth said he considers them black metal in terms of philosophy and atmosphere, but not in other ways. The controversy surrounding the Thuringian band Absurd drew attention to the German black metal scene. Inthe members murdered a boy from their school, Sandro Beyer. It was recorded in prison and released in Poland by Graveland drummer Capricornus. In the beginning of the second wave, the different scenes developed their own styles; as Alan 'Nemtheanga' Averill says, "you had the Greek sound and the Finnish sound, and the Norwegian sound, and there was German bands and Swiss bands and that kind of thing.
After Euronymous's death, "some bands went more towards the Viking metal and epic style, while some bands went deeper into the abyss. It was said he was killed "out of anger" because he had "harassed" the two men. The Swedish band Shiningfounded inbegan writing music almost exclusively about depression and suicide, musically inspired by Strid and by Burzum's albums Hvis lyset tar oss and Filosofem. According to Erik Danielsson, when his band Watain formed inthere were very few bands who took black metal as seriously as the early Norwegian scene had.
The lyrics contain magical formulae from the Liber Azerate and are based on the organization's teachings. A part of the underground scene adopted a Jungian interpretation of the church burnings and other acts of the early scene as the re-emergence of ancient archetypes, which Kadmon of Allerseelen and the authors of Lords of Chaos had implied in their writings.
Members of French band Funeral desecrated a grave in Toulon in Juneand a year-old black metal fan stabbed a priest to death in Mulhouse on Christmas Eve The early American black metal bands remained underground. Many were musically inspired by Burzum but did not necessarily adopt Vikernes's ideas. This scene's typical style is a mixture of old school black metal and raw thrash metal influenced by old Celtic Frost, Bathory, Venom, and Sodom but also with its own elements. Melechesh was formed in Jerusalem in"the first overtly anti-Christian band to exist in one of the holiest cities in the world".
Since the s, a number of anti-Islamic and anti-religious black metal bands—whose members come from Muslim backgrounds—have emerged in the Middle East.
Janaza, believed to be Iraq's first female black metal artist, released the demo Burning Quran Ceremony in Its frontwoman, Anahita, claimed her parents and brother were killed by a suicide bomb during the Iraq War. Metal news website Metalluminati suggests that their claims of being based in Iraq are a hoax. Regarding the sound of black metal, there are two conflicting groups within the genre: "those that stay true to the genre's roots, and those that introduce progressive elements".
One supporter of this train of thought is Blake Judd of Nachtmystiumwho has rejected labeling his band black metal for its departure from the genre's typical sound. Since the s, different styles of black metal have emerged and some have melded Norwegian-style black metal with other genres:. Ambient black metal is a style of black metal which relies on heavy incorporation of atmospheric, sometimes dreamy textures, and is therefore less aggressive.
It often features synthesizers or classical instrumentation, typically for melody or ethereal "shimmering" over the wall of sound provided by the guitars. The music is usually slow to mid paced with rare blast beat usage, without any abrupt changes and generally features slowly developing, sometimes repetitive melodies and riffs, which separate it from other black metal styles. Subject matter usually concerns nature, folklore, mythology, and personal introspection.
Black-doom, also known as blackened doom, is a style that combines the slowness and thicker, bassier sound of doom metal with the shrieking vocals and heavily distorted guitar sound of black metal.
Pioneered by black-doom bands like OphthalamiaKatatoniaBethlehemForgotten Tomb and Shiningdepressive suicidal black metal, also known as suicidal black metal, depressive black metal or DSBM, is a style that melds the second wave -style of black metal with doom metal,  with lyrics revolving around themes such as depressionself-harmmisanthropysuicide and death.
Black 'n' roll is a style of black metal that incorporates elements from s hard rock and rock and roll music. Crust punk groups, such as AntisectSacrilege and Anti System took some influence from early black metal bands like VenomHellhammerand Celtic Frost while Amebix 's lead vocalist and guitarist sent his band's early demo tape to Cronos of Venom, who replied by saying "We'll rip you off.
Iskra are probably the most obvious example of second wave black metal -influenced crust punk;  Iskra coined their own phrase "blackened crust" to describe their new style. The Japanese group Gallhammer also fused crust punk with black metal  while the English band Fukpig has been said to have elements of crust punk, black metal, and grindcore. As Daniel Ekeroth wrote in. In a very ironic paradox, black metal and crust punk have recently started to embrace one another. Members of Darkthrone and Satyricon have lately claimed that they love punk, while among crusties, black metal is the latest fashion.
In fact, the latest album by crust punk band Skitsystem sounds very black metal—while the latest black metal opus by Darkthrone sounds very punk! This would have been unimaginable in the early 90s. Red and anarchist black metalalso known as RABM,   is a subgenre that melds black metal with anarchist crust punkpromoting ideologies such as anarchismenvironmentalismor Marxism. Blackened death-doom is a genre that combines the slow tempos and monolithic drumming of doom metalthe complex and loud riffage of death metal and the shrieking vocals of black metal.
Blackened death metal is commonly death metal that incorporates musical, lyrical or ideological elements of black metal, such as an increased use of tremolo pickinganti-Christian or Satanic lyrical themes and chord progressions similar to those used in Gang War - Rabid Dogs (3) - Rabid Dogs (CD metal. Melodic black-death  also known as blackened melodic death metal or melodic blackened death metal  is a genre of extreme metal that describes the style created when melodic death metal bands began being inspired by black metal and European romanticism.
However, unlike most other black metal, this take on the genre would incorporate an increased sense of melody and narrative. Blackened grindcore is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and grindcore.
Blackened thrash metal, also known as black-thrash,  is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and thrash metal. Folk black metal, pagan metal and Viking metal are styles that incorporates elements of folk musicwith pagan metal bands focusing on pagan lyrics and imagery,  and Viking metal bands giving thematic focus on Norse mythologyNorse paganismand the Viking Agemore influenced by Nordic folk music.
Industrial black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates elements of industrial music. Mysticumformed in was the first of these groups. And Oceans. Post-black metal is an umbrella term for genres that experiment beyond black metal's conventions and broaden their sounds, evolving past the genre's limits. Blackgaze incorporates common black metal and post-black metal elements such as blast beat drumming and high-pitched screamed vocals with the melodic and heavily distorted guitar styles typically associated with shoegazing.
National Socialist black metal also known as NSBM is a subgenre that promotes neo-Nazi or similar beliefs through its lyrics and imagery. Artists typically meld neo-Nazi ideology with ethnic European paganism, but a few meld these beliefs with Satanism or occultism. Some commentators see this ideology as a natural development of the black Gang War - Rabid Dogs (3) - Rabid Dogs (CD worldview.
Members of the early Norwegian scene flirted with Nazi themes, but this was largely an attempt to provoke. It is particularly strong in the former Eastern Bloc. Psychedelic black metal is a subgenre of black metal which employs the usage of psychedelic elements. Raw black metal is a subgenre that seeks to amplify the primitive qualities of the second wave of black metal, by giving priority to its lo-fi production values. Symphonic black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates symphonic and orchestral elements.
This may include the usage of instruments found in symphony orchestras piano, violin, celloflute and keyboards"clean" or operatic vocals and guitars with less distortion. Unblack metal or Christian black metal is a subgenre that promotes Christianity through its lyrics and imagery.
It sparked controversy, and death threats were issued against Horde. Unlike other metal genres, black metal is associated with an ideology and ethos. It is fiercely opposed to Christianity  and the other main institutional religionsIslam and Judaism.
Many black metal bands are Satanists and see Satanism as a key part of black metal. During the Yokohama fog incidentDazai wears a white waistcoat over black long sleeves and a brown tie, together with white pants. A lapel pin can be also seen attached to his padded overcoat. After being arrested by the Hunting Dogs and taken to MeursaultDazai is currently wearing white prison clothes.
Dazai is a mysterious person, his true intentions are never revealed unless he reveals them. The person who got closest to the truth of his personality, as acknowledged by Dazai himself, was his friend Sakunosuke Odawho recognized that Dazai shall linger in the darkness forever, as there was nearly nothing that can surpass his mind.
Regardless whether he is on the side of killing people or saving them, Oda knew that no place in the world could fill Dazai's loneliness, which Oda Gang War - Rabid Dogs (3) - Rabid Dogs (CD Dazai knew in himself. As a saying in the Mafia went, "The greatest misfortune for Dazai's enemies is that they are Dazai's enemies", for Dazai was aptly described to be "practically born to be in the Mafia".
He was extremely confident and was a terrific planner, coming up with long-run strategies to subdue his enemies. For instance, he was able to lure Mimic operatives, who were previously trained soldiers, to fall under his trap. Behind this grim persona, Dazai admitted that he joined the Mafia to be exposed to death, violence, and people giving in to their urges and desires, expecting that—in this way—he would be able to see the inner nature of humankind firsthand in hopes of finding a reason to live.
Admittedly, he reckoned that people change over time  where potential surfaces,  which apparently seems to apply to himself as well. Upon joining the Agency, Dazai is usually called lazy, with Doppo Kunikida always scolding him for being unproductive and slacking off. Despite that, he has shown a sharp wit, deducing all the unlikely situations that led Atsushi Nakajima to believe he was being stalked by a tiger when he was the tiger in question.
In most occasions, Dazai is overly dramatic. He takes most of his actions as a joke, and, although they are very well-thought plans, he does not credit himself for most of what he has done. Dazai likes to tease anyone and everyone, especially if it means that he can get a laugh out of it.
Dazai, in particular, wishes to commit double suicide with a beautiful woman;    though he admits that he "likes all types of women", he possibly prefers the type who would die with him if he asked to. While his suicidal tendencies are initially comedic, they reveal a truly dark deep hole that Dazai has. Even as a teenage boy, Dazai questioned whether there was any value in life. He understood that even though good and evil mean little to Dazai, he may become a slightly better person if he were to choose well.
In the past, while he was still suicidal, it was shown to be far less comedic. He even described the death as a way to free himself from the oxidizing world, but, strangely enough, he could not die no matter how hard he tried.
Dazai allows suspicions to surround and frame him in order to outmaneuver the Azure Apostle. While in the present he is more lighthearted and comical, he still retains some of his darker personality. He is still able and proficient at coming up with long-run strategies, though he doesn't inform his teammates what they are until the time is right.
Nonetheless, he does care for his teammates and watches out for them, especially Atsushi for whom he sees the greatest potential. Moreover, Dazai develops a sense of duty and utilizes his wit and intelligence to the Agency in their quest to help maintain Yokohama's peace and order. As part of his various plans and well-calculated strategies, he even devised for Atsushi and Akutagawa to collaborate at times to become a new generation of Twin Dark who could take on the brewing evil lurking within the city.
It relies on skin contact and is always active. As such, he can nullify any ability even while restrained as soon as it touches him. The Olympic Games originated earlier than years B.
They were initially contests between neighboring city-states or nations. These city-states were almost continually at war with one another. All wars were suspended during the Olympic Games. One might say that the two purposes of the Olympic Games are to choose champions in various skills and sports, and to suspend wars. The Olympic Games is now a media event. This is not a bad thing. The world gets to see representatives of countries whose names they have only read in geography books, or whose names they have never heard before.
The Olympics celebrate the best in humanity. It celebrates our willingness to compete in a spirit of fairness, with nothing deciding the outcome of contests, other than the individual abilities of each participant. It does this on a worldwide basis. This is a good thing. The Olympic Games are not a waste of money, but I see them rapidly becoming a wasteland of money.
By "wasteland of money", I mean an entirely commercial spectacle shaped by the needs and demands of corporate sponsors and by the egos running the International Olympic Committee and the various national and games-specific organizing committees.
Except for the funds coming from taxpayers supporting the host sites, almost all of the money spent on the Olympics is provided willingly by the sponsors, donors and spectators.
One should presume that they don't consider the money to be wasted. The Olympics bring peace and togetherness. The Olympic Games aren't a waste of money. Even despite their high costs, besides the implementation of new infrastructure for the city, the Games bring intangible benefits and long term profits for their sponsors. New jobs, community integration, educational, political and social benefits, tourism growth and global marketing for the city.
We are living a city transformation in Rio the Janeiro at this time and as a 'Carioca' I totally support the Games. The Olympics is the biggest and most widely watched spectacle on earth What could replace it?
The Olympics unites the world and is an honour for a country to host. Due to the Olympics the host country should see rise in tourism and the economy in the long term. It also motivates and encourages sport within the country. The Olympics are not a waste of money because some people live to be athletic. Throughout the wars and world disasters, every two years sport groups can come together not to fight but to compete. So if we use some money on the Olympics we can make people happy and earn more money to pay off the costs.
With some extra money earned we can help make more sport opportunity for kids and the less fortunate possible.
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